Protocols in Current Issue
    Isolation of GFP-expressing Malarial Hypnozoites by Flow Cytometry Cell Sorting
    Authors:  Annemarie Voorberg-van der Wel, Sam O. Hoffman and Clemens H. M. Kocken, date: 05/05/2021, view: 395, Q&A: 0

    Hypnozoites are dormant liver-stage parasites unique to relapsing malarial species, including the important human pathogen Plasmodium vivax, and pose a barrier to the elimination of malaria. Little is known regarding the biology of these stages, largely due to their inaccessible location. Hypnozoites can be cultured in vitro but these cultures

    A Potent Vaccine Delivery System
    Authors:  Guangzu Zhao, Armira Azuar, Istvan Toth and Mariusz Skwarczynski, date: 04/05/2021, view: 668, Q&A: 0

    Most vaccines require co-delivery of an adjuvant in order to generate the desired immune responses. However, many currently available adjuvants are non-biodegradable, have limited efficacy, and/or poor safety profile. Thus, new adjuvants, or self-adjuvanting vaccine delivery systems, are required. Here, we proposed a self-adjuvanting delivery

    Resolving Structural Changes of Photoreceptors in Living Escherichia coli via In-cell Infrared Difference Spectroscopy
    Authors:  Lukas Goett-Zink, Jessica L. Klocke and Tilman Kottke, date: 02/05/2021, view: 842, Q&A: 0

    Several in-cell spectroscopic techniques have been developed recently to investigate the structure and mechanism of proteins in their native environment. Conditions in vivo differ dramatically from those selected for in vitro experiments. Accordingly, the cellular environment can affect the protein mechanism for example by molecular crowding or

    Murine Acute Pneumonia Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection
    Authors:  Xiaolei Pan and Weihui Wu, date: 11/05/2020, view: 1009, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Animal infection models play significant roles in studying bacterial pathogenic mechanisms, host pathogen interaction as well as evaluating drug and vaccine efficacies. We have been utilizing an acute pneumonia model to study bacterial colonization in lungs and assess virulence to the host by determination of bacterial loads and survival assays, ...
    Long-distance Transport in Bacterial Swarms Revealed by Single Nanoparticle Tracking
    Authors:  Jingjing Feng and Yan He, date: 11/05/2020, view: 839, Q&A: 0

    During swarming, high density flagella-driven bacteria migrate collectively in a swirling pattern on wet agar surfaces, immersed in a thin viscous fluid layer called “swarm fluid”. Though the fluid environment has essential role in the emergence of swarming behavior, the microscopic mechanisms of it in mediating the cooperation of

    Detection of in vivo Protein Interactions in All Bacterial Compartments by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer with the Superfolder mTurquoise2 ox-mNeongreen FRET Pair
    Authors:  Nils Y. Meiresonne, Elisa Consoli, Laureen M.Y. Mertens and Tanneke den Blaauwen, date: 12/05/2019, view: 3319, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol was developed to qualitatively and quantitatively detect protein-protein interactions in all compartments of Escherichia coli by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using the Superfolder mTurquoise2 ox-mNeonGreen FRET pair (sfTq2ox-mNG). This FRET pair has more than twice the detection range for FRET ...
    QUEEN-based Spatiotemporal ATP Imaging in Budding and Fission Yeast
    Author:  Masak Takaine, date: 08/05/2019, view: 3557, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Yeasts have provided an exceptional model for studying metabolism and bioenergetics in eukaryotic cells. Among numerous metabolites, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a major metabolite that is essential for all living organisms. Therefore, a clearer understanding of ATP dynamics in living yeast cells is important for deciphering cellular energy ...
    Precision Technique for Splenectomy Limits Mouse Stress Responses for Accurate and Realistic Measurements for Investigating Inflammation and Immunity
    Authors:  Shengwen Calvin Li, Anthony D. Rangel and Mustafa H. Kabeer, date: 08/05/2019, view: 2890, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Splenectomy in an animal model requires a standardized technique utilizing best practice to avoid variability which can result in adverse impact to the animal resulting in flawed physiologic responses simply due to technique rather than to the studied variables. In the case of the spleen, often investigators are analyzing the animal immune or ...
    Unbiased Screening of Activated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) in Tumor Extracts Using a Mouse Phospho-RTK Array Kit
    Authors:  Julian Naipauer, Lucas E. Cavallin and Enrique A. Mesri, date: 04/20/2019, view: 3042, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) is a virus that causes KS, an angiogenic AIDS-associated spindle-cell neoplasm, by activating host oncogenic signaling cascades through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Many host signaling cascades co-opted by KSHV including PI3K/AKT/mTORC, NFkB and Notch are critical for cell-specific mechanisms of ...
    Eimeria vermiformis Infection Model of Murine Small Intestine
    Authors:  Patrícia Figueiredo-Campos, Cristina Ferreira, Birte Blankenhaus and Marc Veldhoen, date: 12/20/2018, view: 3231, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Eimeria vermiformis is a tissue specific, intracellular protozoan that infects the murine small intestinal epithelia, which has been widely used as a coccidian model to study mucosal immunology. This mouse infection model is valuable to investigate the mechanisms of host protection against primary and secondary infection in the small ...

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