Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Protocol to Induce Follicular T Helper Cells, Germinal Centers, and Skin Lesions in Mouse Models for Skin Blistering Diseases

    Autoreactive T cells in autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases can be divided into two major subsets: (i) follicular T helper cells (Tfh) that provide T cell help in germinal centers (GC) and (ii) effector T (Teff) cells that immigrate into

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    Protocol to Induce Follicular T Helper Cells, Germinal Centers, and Skin Lesions in Mouse Models for Skin Blistering Diseases
    [Abstract]

    Autoreactive T cells in autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases can be divided into two major subsets: (i) follicular T helper cells (Tfh) that provide T cell help in germinal centers (GC) and (ii) effector T (Teff) cells that immigrate into peripheral tissue sites such as the skin and mediate local inflammation. To study the sequence of events

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    Characterization of the Elasticity of CD4+ T Cells: An Approach Based on Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping
    Authors:  Philipp Jung, Xiangda Zhou, Sandra Iden, Bin Qu and Markus Bischoff, date: 04/20/2022, view: 734, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    CD4+ T cells are essential players in orchestrating the specific immune response against intracellular pathogens, and in inhibiting tumor development in an early stage. The activation of T cells is triggered by engagement of T cell receptors (TCRs). Here, CD3 and CD28 molecules are key factors, (co)stimulating signaling pathways essential for

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    An Optimized Tat/Rev Induced Limiting Dilution Assay for the Characterization of HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs
    [Abstract]

    The administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) leads to a rapid reduction in plasma viral load in HIV-1 seropositive subjects. However, when ART is suspended, the virus rebounds due to the presence of a latent viral reservoir. Several techniques have been developed to characterize this latent viral reservoir. Of the various assay formats

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    Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody with Pseudotyped Virus-based Test on HEK-293T hACE2 Cells
    [Abstract]

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are of particular importance because they can prevent binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S protein) to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor present at the surface of human cells, preventing virus entry into the host cells. The gold standard method for detection of

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    A Mouse Infection Model with a Wildtype Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain for the Analysis of Inflammatory Innate Immune Cells
    Authors:  Christa Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Natascha Brigo, Piotr Tymoszuk and Günter Weiss, date: 04/05/2022, view: 339, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium, which causes gastrointestinal disorders in humans, and systemic, typhoid fever-like infections in mice. Our current knowledge regarding the involvement of cellular and humoral immunity in the defense from S. Typhimurium infections is

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    Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell into Macrophages
    Authors:  Harriet Douthwaite, Aitor Bermejo Arteagabeitia and Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, date: 03/20/2022, view: 836, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    As a model to interrogate human macrophage biology, macrophages differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) transcend other existing models by circumventing the variability seen in human monocyte-derived macrophages, whilst epitomizing macrophage phenotypic and functional characteristics over those offered by macrophage-like

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    CD8 T Cell Virus Inhibition Assay Protocol
    [Abstract]

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viral inhibition assay (VIA) measures CD8+ T cell-mediated inhibition of HIV replication in CD4+ T cells and is increasingly used for clinical testing of HIV vaccines and immunotherapies. Different VIAs that differ in length of CD8:CD4 T cell culture periods (6–13 days), purity of CD4 cultures

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    Electrophysiological Measurements of Isolated Blood Vessels
    Authors:  Samuel A Molina, Daniela Maier-Begandt, Brant E Isakson and Michael Koval, date: 03/20/2022, view: 422, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The lumen of blood vessels is covered by endothelial cells, which regulate their permeability to ions and solutes. Endothelial permeability depends on the vascular bed and cell phenotype, and is influenced by different disease states. Most characterization of endothelial permeability has been carried out using isolated cells in culture. While

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    Restimulation-Induced Cell Death (RICD): Methods for Modeling, Investigating, and Quantifying RICD Sensitivity in Primary Human T Cells via Flow Cytometric Analysis
    Authors:  Katherine Pohida, Camille M. Lake, Debra Yee and Andrew L. Snow, date: 02/20/2022, view: 1051, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    When the body mounts an immune response against a foreign pathogen, the adaptive arm of the immune system relies upon clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cell populations to exercise acquired effector and cytotoxic functions to clear it. However, T cell expansion must be modulated to effectively combat the perceived threat without inducing

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    Investigation of Microvesicle Uptake by Mouse Lung-marginated Monocytes in vitro
    Authors:  Ying Ying Tan, Kieran P. O'Dea, Brijesh V. Patel and Masao Takata, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1471, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are released into the circulation in large numbers during acute systemic inflammation, yet little is known of their intravascular cell/tissue-specific interactions under these conditions. We recently described a dramatic increase in the uptake of intravenously injected MVs by monocytes marginated within the

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