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    Virucidal and Neutralizing Activity Tests for Antiviral Substances and Antibodies
    Authors:  Chie Aoki-Utsubo, Ming Chen and Hak Hotta, date: 05/20/2018, view: 63, Q&A: 0
    In a narrow definition, virucidal activity represents the activity by which to interact with and physically disrupt viral particles. In a broad definition, it includes the activity by which to functionally inhibit (neutralize) viral infectivity ...
    In vitro Analysis of Ubiquitin-like Protein Modification in Archaea
    Authors:  Xian Fu, Zachary Adams and Julie A. Maupin-Furlow, date: 05/20/2018, view: 90, Q&A: 0
    The ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein is widely distributed in Archaea and involved in many cellular pathways. A well-established method to reconstitute archaeal Ubl protein conjugation in vitro is important to better understand the process of ...
    Enzymatic Activity Assay for Invertase in Synechocystis Cells
    Authors:  Xiaoming Tan, Kuo Song and Xuefeng Lu, date: 05/20/2018, view: 99, Q&A: 0
    Invertase can catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose, and is widely distributed in cells of cyanobacteria and plants. Being responsible for the first step for sucrose metabolism, invertase plays important physiological roles and its enzymatic activity ...
    Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cysteine Excreted by Bacterial Cells
    Authors:  Sergey Korshunov and James A. Imlay, date: 05/20/2018, view: 70, Q&A: 0
    Bacteria release cysteine to moderate the size of their intracellular pools. They can also evolve hydrogen sulfide, either through dissimilatory reduction of oxidized forms of sulfur or through the deliberate or inadvertent degradation of ...
    Intra-amniotic Injection of Mouse Embryos
    Authors:  Liyuan Cui, Peng Zou, Qingshuo Meng, Lu Lu and Jiayi Zhang, date: 05/20/2018, view: 58, Q&A: 0
    Recent outbreaks of infectious neuro-developmental diseases such as congenital Zika syndrome - have led to a demand for prognosis data from animal models. We developed an intra-amniotic injection mice model that allows Zika virus (ZIKV) infected ...
    Virucidal and Neutralizing Activity Tests for Antiviral Substances and Antibodies
    Authors:  Chie Aoki-Utsubo, Ming Chen and Hak Hotta, date: 05/20/2018, view: 63, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In a narrow definition, virucidal activity represents the activity by which to interact with and physically disrupt viral particles. In a broad definition, it includes the activity by which to functionally inhibit (neutralize) viral infectivity without apparent morphological alterations of the viral particles. The viral infectivity can be measured ...
    In vitro Analysis of Ubiquitin-like Protein Modification in Archaea
    Authors:  Xian Fu, Zachary Adams and Julie A. Maupin-Furlow, date: 05/20/2018, view: 90, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein is widely distributed in Archaea and involved in many cellular pathways. A well-established method to reconstitute archaeal Ubl protein conjugation in vitro is important to better understand the process of archaeal Ubl protein modification. This protocol describes the in vitro reconstitution of ...
    Enzymatic Activity Assay for Invertase in Synechocystis Cells
    Authors:  Xiaoming Tan, Kuo Song and Xuefeng Lu, date: 05/20/2018, view: 99, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Invertase can catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose, and is widely distributed in cells of cyanobacteria and plants. Being responsible for the first step for sucrose metabolism, invertase plays important physiological roles and its enzymatic activity is frequently needed to be determined. All the methods for determination of the invertase activity ...
    Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cysteine Excreted by Bacterial Cells
    Authors:  Sergey Korshunov and James A. Imlay, date: 05/20/2018, view: 70, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacteria release cysteine to moderate the size of their intracellular pools. They can also evolve hydrogen sulfide, either through dissimilatory reduction of oxidized forms of sulfur or through the deliberate or inadvertent degradation of intracellular cysteine. These processes can have important consequences upon microbial communities, because ...
    Intra-amniotic Injection of Mouse Embryos
    Authors:  Liyuan Cui, Peng Zou, Qingshuo Meng, Lu Lu and Jiayi Zhang, date: 05/20/2018, view: 58, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recent outbreaks of infectious neuro-developmental diseases such as congenital Zika syndrome - have led to a demand for prognosis data from animal models. We developed an intra-amniotic injection mice model that allows Zika virus (ZIKV) infected mice to grow to puberty. In this system, ZIKV is injected into the amniotic fluid of pregnant mice and ...
    Glycogen and Extracellular Glucose Estimation from Cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    Authors:  Md. Rezaul Islam Khan, Yushu Wang, Shajia Afrin, Lin He and Gang Ma, date: 05/05/2018, view: 188, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cyanobacteria, which have the extraordinary ability to grow using sunlight and carbon dioxide, are emerging as a green host to produce value-added products. Exploitation of this highly promising host to make products may depend on the ability to modulate the glucose metabolic pathway; it is the key metabolic pathway that generates intermediates ...
    A Modified Low-quantity RNA-Seq Method for Microbial Community and Diversity Analysis Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA
    Authors:  Yong-Wei Yan, Ting Zhu, Bin Zou and Zhe-Xue Quan, date: 05/05/2018, view: 126, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We propose a modified RNA-Seq method for small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA)-based microbial community analysis that depends on the direct ligation of a 5’ adaptor to RNA before reverse-transcription. The method requires only a low-input quantity of RNA (10-100 ng) and does not require a DNA removal step. Using this method, we could obtain more ...
    Time-of-addition and Temperature-shift Assays to Determine Particular Step(s) in the Viral Life Cycle that is Blocked by Antiviral Substance(s)
    Authors:  Chie Aoki-Utsubo, Ming Chen and Hak Hotta, date: 05/05/2018, view: 137, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Viruses infect their host cells to produce progeny virus particles through the sequential steps of the viral life cycle, such as viral attachment, entry, penetration and post-entry events. This protocol describes time-of-addition and temperature-shift assays that are employed to explore which step(s) in the viral life cycle is blocked by an ...
    Assessing the Efficacy of Small Molecule Inhibitors in a Mouse Model of Persistent Norovirus Infection
    Authors:  Jana Van Dycke, Johan Neyts and Joana Rocha-Pereira, date: 05/05/2018, view: 162, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Human norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, resulting in estimated mortality of ~210,000 each year, of whom most are children under the age of five. However, norovirus can infect people of all age groups. There is a risk of prolonged infection in children, the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. To ...
    Infection Process Observation of Magnaporthe oryzae on Barley Leaves
    Author:  Xiao-Lin Chen, date: 05/05/2018, view: 212, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Rice blast and wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious threat to rice and wheat production. Appropriate methods for observing M. oryzae infection process are important for study of the fungal infection mechanisms, plant resistance reactions, and host-M. oryzae interactions. The rice leaf sheath is commonly ...