Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Model of Chemotherapy-associated Mucositis and Oral Opportunistic Infections
    Authors:  Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson and Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou, date: 11/05/2019, view: 95, Q&A: 0
    Oral mucositis is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy treatment. Because of the lack of relevant oral mucositis experimental models, it is not clear how chemotherapeutic agents injure the oral mucosa and if commensal microorganisms ...
    Amplex Red Assay for Measuring Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Ozgur Karakuzu, Melissa R. Cruz, Yi Liu and Danielle A. Garsin, date: 11/05/2019, view: 89, Q&A: 0
    Reagents such as Amplex® Red have been developed for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and are used to measure the release of H2O2 from biological samples such as mammalian leukocytes ...
    A Mismatch-tolerant RT-LAMP Method for Molecular Diagnosis of Highly Variable Viruses
    Authors:  Yingxue Li, Yi Zhou, Yingying Ma, Rong Xu, Xia Jin and Chiyu Zhang, date: 11/05/2019, view: 129, Q&A: 0
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used in the detection of pathogens. However, there are usually numerous variants in one viral pathogen and primers employed in LAMP can hardly match all these variants. The mismatches ...
    Purification and HPLC Analysis of Cell Wall Muropeptides from Caulobacter crescentus
    Authors:  Gabriele Stankeviciute and Eric A. Klein, date: 11/05/2019, view: 61, Q&A: 0
    The peptidoglycan sacculus, or cell wall, is what defines bacterial cell shape. Cell wall composition can be best characterized at the molecular level by digesting the peptidoglycan murein polymer into its muropeptide subunits and quantifying the ...
    In vitro Screening of Antileishmanial Activity of Natural Product Compounds: Determination of IC50, CC50 and SI Values
    Authors:  Olga S. Koutsoni, Kalliopi Karampetsou and Eleni Dotsika, date: 11/05/2019, view: 87, Q&A: 0
    Neglected tropical diseases gain the scientific interest of numerous research programs in an attempt to achieve their effective control or elimination. In this attempt, more cutting-edge public health policies and research are needed for the ...
    Model of Chemotherapy-associated Mucositis and Oral Opportunistic Infections
    Authors:  Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson and Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou, date: 11/05/2019, view: 95, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Oral mucositis is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy treatment. Because of the lack of relevant oral mucositis experimental models, it is not clear how chemotherapeutic agents injure the oral mucosa and if commensal microorganisms accelerate tissue damage. We developed an organotypic oral mucosa model that mimics cellular responses ...
    Amplex Red Assay for Measuring Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Ozgur Karakuzu, Melissa R. Cruz, Yi Liu and Danielle A. Garsin, date: 11/05/2019, view: 89, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Reagents such as Amplex® Red have been developed for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and are used to measure the release of H2O2 from biological samples such as mammalian leukocytes undergoing the oxidative burst. Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a model host in the study ...
    A Mismatch-tolerant RT-LAMP Method for Molecular Diagnosis of Highly Variable Viruses
    Authors:  Yingxue Li, Yi Zhou, Yingying Ma, Rong Xu, Xia Jin and Chiyu Zhang, date: 11/05/2019, view: 129, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used in the detection of pathogens. However, there are usually numerous variants in one viral pathogen and primers employed in LAMP can hardly match all these variants. The mismatches between the primers and the viral genomes, especially those at the 3′-end of the primers, hinder LAMP ...
    Purification and HPLC Analysis of Cell Wall Muropeptides from Caulobacter crescentus
    Authors:  Gabriele Stankeviciute and Eric A. Klein, date: 11/05/2019, view: 61, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The peptidoglycan sacculus, or cell wall, is what defines bacterial cell shape. Cell wall composition can be best characterized at the molecular level by digesting the peptidoglycan murein polymer into its muropeptide subunits and quantifying the abundance of muropeptides using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Certain features of the cell wall ...
    In vitro Screening of Antileishmanial Activity of Natural Product Compounds: Determination of IC50, CC50 and SI Values
    Authors:  Olga S. Koutsoni, Kalliopi Karampetsou and Eleni Dotsika, date: 11/05/2019, view: 87, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Neglected tropical diseases gain the scientific interest of numerous research programs in an attempt to achieve their effective control or elimination. In this attempt, more cutting-edge public health policies and research are needed for the discovery of new, safer and effective drugs originated from natural products. Here, we describe protocols ...
    Quantification of HIV-2 DNA in Whole Blood
    Authors:  Zsófia Szojka, Sara Karlson, Marianne Jansson and Patrik Medstrand, date: 10/20/2019, view: 262, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Time to AIDS infection is longer with HIV-2, compared to HIV-1, but without antiretroviral therapy both infections will cause AIDS-related mortality. In HIV-2 infection, monitoring of antiretroviral treatment (ART) efficacy is challenging since a large proportion of HIV-2-infected individuals displays low or undetectable plasma RNA levels. Hence, ...
    Probabilistic Models for Predicting Mutational Routes to New Adaptive Phenotypes
    Authors:  Eric Libby and Peter A. Lind, date: 10/20/2019, view: 402, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Understanding the translation of genetic variation to phenotypic variation is a fundamental problem in genetics and evolutionary biology. The introduction of new genetic variation through mutation can lead to new adaptive phenotypes, but the complexity of the genotype-to-phenotype map makes it challenging to predict the phenotypic effects of ...
    Experimental Setup for a Diffusion Bioreactor to Isolate Unculturable Soil Bacteria
    Authors:  Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary and Jaisoo Kim, date: 10/05/2019, view: 357, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Unculturable bacteria are those bacteria which proliferate in their native habitat but unable to grow or thrive in the normal laboratory media and conditions. The molecular techniques have revealed the significance of these uncultured bacteria in terms of their functional diversity and potential to produce secondary metabolites. To achieve these ...
    Analyzing the Functionality of Non-native Hsp70 Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Authors:  Laura E. Knighton, Lizbeth P. Saa, Adam M. Reitzel and Andrew W. Truman, date: 10/05/2019, view: 212, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Yeast are an ideal system to study Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) function in a cellular context. This protocol was generated to analyze the function of non-native Hsp70 proteins by expressing them as the sole cytosolic Hsp70 in yeast. As an initial step, Hsp70 variants (such as Ssa1 point mutants and non-yeast versions such as Nematostella ...
    Production of Quantum Dots-containing Influenza Virus Particles for Studying Viral Uncoating Processes
    Authors:  Chong Qin, Xiaowei Zhang and Zongqiang Cui, date: 09/20/2019, view: 243, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The genome of influenza A virus (IAV) comprises eight pinlike genomic segments called vRNPs enclosed in viral capsid. During infection, uncoating is the key step for viral replication and represents an antiviral therapeutic target, but it is difficult to observe the transient and dynamic event in detail. Here, we report a protocol for production ...



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