Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Assessing Yeast Cell Survival Following Hydrogen Peroxide Exposure
    Authors:  Khoa Tran and Erin M. Green, date: 01/20/2019, view: 2086, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In the presence of oxidative stress, cellular defense systems that can detoxify reactive oxygen species are activated through multiple signaling cascades and transcriptional reprogramming. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an excellent model for genetically-identifying factors important for the response to oxidative ...
    Determination of Survival of Wildtype and Mutant Escherichia coli in Soil
    Authors:  Yinka Somorin and Conor O'Byrne, date: 07/20/2017, view: 3726, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] E. coli resides in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals but recent studies have shown that E. coli can persist and grow in various external environments including soil. The general stress response regulator, RpoS, helps E. coli overcome various stresses, however its role in soil survival ...
    Determination of the Predatory Capability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100
    Authors:  Cristina Herencias, M. Auxiliadora Prieto and Virginia Martínez, date: 03/20/2017, view: 5198, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is an obligate predator that preys upon a wide variety of Gram negative bacteria. The biphasic growth cycle of Bdellovibrio includes a free-swimming attack phase and an intraperiplasmic growth phase, where the predator replicates its DNA and grows using the prey as a source of nutrients, finally ...
    Bacterial Intracellular Sodium Ion Measurement using CoroNa Green
    Authors:  Yusuke V. Morimoto, Keiichi Namba and Tohru Minamino, date: 01/05/2017, view: 5284, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus consists of a cytoplasmic ATPase complex and a transmembrane export gate complex, which are powered by ATP and proton motive force (PMF) across the cytoplasmic membrane, respectively, and transports flagellar component proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure ...
    Induction, Isolation and Counting of Akinetes in Aphanizomenon ovalisporum
    Authors:  Assaf Sukenik, Ruth N. Kaplan-Levi, Yehudit Viner-Mozzini, Achsa Lupu and Dotan Sela, date: 05/20/2016, view: 4564, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Akinetes are spore-like resting (dormant) cells formed by strains of filamentous cyanobacteria for surviving long periods of unfavorable conditions. During deprivation for potassium, vegetative photosynthetic cells along the filaments of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (A. ovalisporum) (strain ILC-164) differentiate ...
    Spot Assays for Viability Analysis of Cyanobacteria
    Authors:  Anja Katharina Dörrich and Annegret Wilde, date: 09/05/2015, view: 6643, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a model organism for the study of photosynthesis, gene regulation and biotechnological applications because it is easy to manipulate genetically. Moreover, this cyanobacterium can grow photoautotrophically ...
    Affinofile Assay for Identifying Macrophage-Tropic HIV-1
    Authors:  Sarah B. Joseph, Benhur Lee and Ronald Swanstrom, date: 07/20/2014, view: 5571, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The ability to enter monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) in vitro is commonly used to define macrophage-tropic HIV-1 despite the fact that viruses vary continuously in their ability to enter MDMs in vitro, and MDMs vary in their ability to support HIV-1 entry (Joseph et al., 2014; Peters et al., 2006). This makes ...
    Bacterial Fluorescent-dextran Diffusion Assay
    [Abstract] Antimicrobial peptides are known to disrupt bacterial membranes allowing solutes to flow across the membrane in an unregulated manner resulting in death of the organism. Disrupting the bacterial membrane would thus perturb the cells osmotic balance resulting in an initial influx of the external aqueous buffer. We have designed an assay to ...
    Minimal Bactericidal Concentration for Biofilms (MBC-B)
    Authors:  Nicole Billings and Katharina Ribbeck, date: 05/05/2014, view: 7874, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] A biofilm is a multicellular consortium of surface associated microbes surrounded by a hydrated, extracellular polymer matrix. The biofilm matrix plays a critical role in preventing desiccation, acquiring nutrients, and provides community protection from environmental assaults. Importantly, biofilms are significantly more resistant to ...
    ELISA for Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) in Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
    Authors:  Varandt Y. Khodaverdian and Menachem Shoham, date: 05/05/2014, view: 6183, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Anti-virulence agents against MRSA inhibit the production of disease-causing virulence factors, such as alpha-hemolysin, but are neither bacteriostatic nor bactericidal. Here we discuss a rapid method to screen for MRSA anti-virulence agents by measuring alpha-hemolysin production through ELISA. This protocol can be used with other alpha-hemolysin ...



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