Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Flow Cytometry Analysis and Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting of Myeloid Cells from Lung and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected Mice
    Authors:  Alissa C. Rothchild, Dat Mai, Alan Aderem and Alan H. Diercks, date: 05/20/2020, view: 847, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is transmitted by aerosol and can cause serious bacterial infection in the lung that can be fatal if left untreated. Mtb is now the leading cause of death worldwide by an infectious agent. Characterizing the early events of in vivo infection following aerosol challenge is critical for ...
    Assessing in vitro and in vivo Trogocytosis By Murine CD4+ T cells
    Authors:  Jim Reed and Scott A. Wetzel, date: 05/05/2020, view: 706, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recognition of antigens by lymphocytes (B, T, and NK) on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell (APC) leads to lymphocyte activation and the formation of an immunological synapse between the lymphocyte and the APC. At the immunological synapse APC membrane and associated membrane proteins can be transferred to the lymphocyte in a process called ...
    Characterization of Immunological Niches within Peyer’s Patches by ex vivo Photoactivation and Flow Cytometry Analysis
    Authors:  Adi Biram and Ziv Shulman, date: 03/20/2020, view: 630, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] T follicular helper (Tfh) cells regulate B cell selection for entry into the germinal center (GC) reaction or for differentiation into antibody forming cells. This process takes place at the border between the T and B zones in lymphoid organs and involves physical contacts between T and B cells. During these interactions, T cells endow the B cells ...
    Skin Transplantation and Lymphoid Organ Analysis in Mice
    [Abstract] Skin transplantation in mice is an important procedure to evaluate immune responses generated against heterologous grafts, especially given its highly immunogenic nature. In fact, skin is one of the most challenging organs in terms of allograft retention. In this protocol, we provide a detailed procedure for skin grafting using the tail skin as ...
    In vitro Infection of Primary Human Monocytes with HIV-1
    Authors:  Patrick O’Connell, Yong-Hui Zheng, Andrea Amalfitano and Yasser A. Aldhamen, date: 07/05/2019, view: 1880, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Monocyte infection by HIV-1 is an important component of chronic HIV pathogenesis. Following infection by HIV-1, monocytes are able to cross the blood brain barrier and set up a viral reservoir in the central nervous system. Additionally, in the setting of chronic HIV-1 infection, monocytes can become activated either directly through HIV-1 ...
    Flow Cytometry Assay for Recycling of LFA-1 in T-lymphocytes
    Authors:  Katarzyna Potrzebowska, Janne Lehtonen, Malin Samuelsson and Lena Svensson, date: 12/05/2018, view: 2007, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] To enable cells to move forward, cell surface integrins are internalized into an endosomal compartment and subsequently intracellularly transported to be re-exposed at a new site on the cell membrane. Leukocytes are the fastest migrating cell type in the human body, which express the leukocyte-specific integrin LFA-1. Here, we describe a flow ...
    Identification and Quantitation of Leukocyte Populations in Human Kidney Tissue by Multi-parameter Flow Cytometry
    [Abstract] Inflammatory immune cells play direct pathological roles in cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the identification and characterization of distinct populations of leukocytes in human kidney biopsies have been confounded by the limitations of immunohistochemical (IHC)-based techniques used to detect them. ...
    Visualization of RNA at the Single Cell Level by Fluorescent in situ Hybridization Coupled to Flow Cytometry
    Authors:  Alice Coillard and Elodie Segura, date: 06/20/2018, view: 3668, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The protocol described here has been developed to detect RNA at the single cell level. Fluorescent probes hybridize to target RNAs and are detected by flow cytometry after multiple amplification steps. Different types of RNA can be detected such as mRNA, long noncoding RNA, viral RNA or telomere RNA and up to 4 different target probes can be used ...
    Analysing Temporal Dynamics of T Cell Division in vivo Using Ki67 and BrdU Co-labelling by Flow Cytometry
    Authors:  Thea Hogan, Andrew Yates and Benedict Seddon, date: 12/20/2017, view: 6493, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol was developed to increase the richness of information available from in vivo T cell proliferation studies. DNA labelling techniques such as BrdU incorporation allow precise control of label administration and withdrawal, so that the division history of a population can be tracked in detail over long timeframes (days-weeks). ...
    MHC Class II Tetramer Labeling of Human Primary CD4+ T Cells from HIV Infected Patients
    [Abstract] Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) tetramers have been used for two decades to detect, isolate and characterize T cells specific for various pathogens and tumor antigens. In the context of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells have been extensively studied ex vivo, as they can be ...



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