Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Fractionation of Ovarian Follicles and in vitro Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation Assay of Ciona intestinalis Type A
    Authors:  Shin Matsubara, Akira Shiraishi, Tomohiro Osugi, Tsuyoshi Kawada and Honoo Satake, date: 04/05/2020, view: 508, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ascidians are the closest living relatives of vertebrates (Delsuc et al., 2006; Satoh et al., 2014) and are important for the evolutionary study of the ovarian follicle development including oocyte maturation and ovulation. However, neither the endogenous factors nor the molecular mechanisms underlying the oocyte maturation and ...
    Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue: Isolation, Culture, Characterization and Differentiation
    [Abstract] Since their discovery, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have received a lot of attention, mainly due to their self-renewal potential and multilineage differentiation capacity. For these reasons, MSCs are a useful tool in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In this article, we describe protocols to isolate MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and ...
    In vitro Self-organized Mouse Small Intestinal Epithelial Monolayer Protocol
    Authors:  Gizem Altay, Eduard Batlle, Vanesa Fernández-Majada and Elena Martinez, date: 02/05/2020, view: 1333, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Developing protocols to obtain intestinal epithelial monolayers that recapitulate in vivo physiology to overcome the limitations of the organoids’ closed geometry has become of great interest during the last few years. Most of the developed culture models showed physiological-relevant cell composition but did not prove self-renewing ...
    In vitro Differentiation of Human iPSC-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells (iPSC-RPE)
    Authors:  Agnieszka D’Antonio-Chronowska, Matteo D’Antonio and Kelly A. Frazer, date: 12/20/2019, view: 1477, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) serve as an excellent model system for studying the molecular underpinnings of tissue development. Human iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelium (iPSC-RPE) cells have fetal-like molecular profiles. Hence, biobanks like iPSCORE, which contain iPSCs generated from hundreds of individuals, are an invaluable ...
    In vitro Differentiation of Thymic Treg Cell Progenitors to Mature Thymic Treg Cells
    Authors:  David L. Owen and Michael A. Farrar, date: 08/20/2019, view: 871, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Thymic Treg cell differentiation occurs via a two-step process. Step one generates Treg cell progenitors (TregP) and is driven by strong TCR interactions with antigens presented in the thymus. Step two is initiated by activation of STAT5 via IL-2, or IL-15, leading to mature Treg cells capable of ...
    Detection of Antigen-specific T cells in Spleens of Vaccinated Mice Applying 3[H]-Thymidine Incorporation Assay and Luminex Multiple Cytokine Analysis Technology
    Authors:  Maria Agallou and Evdokia Karagouni, date: 06/05/2019, view: 2919, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] For many infectious diseases T cells are an important part of naturally acquired protective immune responses, and inducing these by vaccination has been the aim of much research. Here, we describe a protocol for the analysis of vaccine-induced antigen-specific immune responses. For this purpose, cells of whole spleens obtained from vaccinated ...
    Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) into an Effective Model of Forebrain Neural Progenitor Cells and Mature Neurons
    [Abstract] Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent stem cells that can be generated from somatic cells, and provide a way to model the development of neural tissues in vitro. One particularly interesting application of iPSCs is the development of neurons analogous to those found in the human forebrain. Forebrain neurons play a central ...
    Induced Germinal Center B Cell Culture System
    Authors:  Kei Haniuda and Daisuke Kitamura, date: 02/20/2019, view: 4809, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The germinal center (GC) is the site where B cells undergo clonal expansion, affinity-based selection, and differentiation into memory B cells or plasma cells. It has been difficult to elucidate regulatory mechanisms for the dynamic GC B cell maturation and differentiation, partly because experimental manipulation of GC B cells in vivo ...
    Isolation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Extraocular Muscle Tissue
    Authors:  Amit Sharma, Darilang Mawrie, Damarais Magdalene and Bithiah Grace Jaganathan, date: 02/20/2019, view: 2111, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted significant attention as potential therapeutic cells to treat various diseases ranging from tissue injuries, graft versus host disease, degenerative diseases and cancer. Since the initial discovery of MSCs in the bone marrow cells, MSCs have been successfully isolated from various adult and neo-natal ...
    Cartilage Induction from Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in High-density Micromass Culture
    [Abstract] Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages, including adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells can be induced to differentiate into chondrocytes in extracellular matrices, such as alginate or collagen gel. Mesenchymal stem cells in a cell pellet or micromass culture can be also induced ...



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