Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    In vitro Differentiation of Thymic Treg Cell Progenitors to Mature Thymic Treg Cells
    Authors:  David L. Owen and Michael A. Farrar, date: 08/20/2019, view: 308, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Thymic Treg cell differentiation occurs via a two-step process. Step one generates Treg cell progenitors (TregP) and is driven by strong TCR interactions with antigens presented in the thymus. Step two is initiated by activation of STAT5 via IL-2, or IL-15, leading to mature Treg cells capable of ...
    Detection of Antigen-specific T cells in Spleens of Vaccinated Mice Applying 3[H]-Thymidine Incorporation Assay and Luminex Multiple Cytokine Analysis Technology
    Authors:  Maria Agallou and Evdokia Karagouni, date: 06/05/2019, view: 932, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] For many infectious diseases T cells are an important part of naturally acquired protective immune responses, and inducing these by vaccination has been the aim of much research. Here, we describe a protocol for the analysis of vaccine-induced antigen-specific immune responses. For this purpose, cells of whole spleens obtained from vaccinated ...
    Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) into an Effective Model of Forebrain Neural Progenitor Cells and Mature Neurons
    [Abstract] Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent stem cells that can be generated from somatic cells, and provide a way to model the development of neural tissues in vitro. One particularly interesting application of iPSCs is the development of neurons analogous to those found in the human forebrain. Forebrain neurons play a central ...
    Induced Germinal Center B Cell Culture System
    Authors:  Kei Haniuda and Daisuke Kitamura, date: 02/20/2019, view: 2547, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The germinal center (GC) is the site where B cells undergo clonal expansion, affinity-based selection, and differentiation into memory B cells or plasma cells. It has been difficult to elucidate regulatory mechanisms for the dynamic GC B cell maturation and differentiation, partly because experimental manipulation of GC B cells in vivo ...
    Isolation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Extraocular Muscle Tissue
    Authors:  Amit Sharma, Darilang Mawrie, Damarais Magdalene and Bithiah Grace Jaganathan, date: 02/20/2019, view: 1347, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted significant attention as potential therapeutic cells to treat various diseases ranging from tissue injuries, graft versus host disease, degenerative diseases and cancer. Since the initial discovery of MSCs in the bone marrow cells, MSCs have been successfully isolated from various adult and neo-natal ...
    Cartilage Induction from Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in High-density Micromass Culture
    [Abstract] Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages, including adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells can be induced to differentiate into chondrocytes in extracellular matrices, such as alginate or collagen gel. Mesenchymal stem cells in a cell pellet or micromass culture can be also induced ...
    One-step Derivation of Functional Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
    Authors:  Yan Zhou, JinQi Liao, ChongZhou Fang, CuiPing Mo, GuangQian Zhou and Yonglun Luo, date: 11/20/2018, view: 1915, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are invaluable cell sources for understanding stem cell biology and potential application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current issues of MSCs that demand to be further addressed are limited donors, tissue sources and limited capacity of ex vivo expansion. Here, we describe a simple and ...
    Small Molecule-Based Retinal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
    Authors:  Jie Zhu and Deepak A. Lamba, date: 06/20/2018, view: 2626, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Retinal degeneration leads to loss of light-sensing photoreceptors eventually resulting in vision impairment and impose a heavy burden on both patients and the society. Currently available treatment options are very limited and mainly palliative. Ever since the discovery of human pluripotent stem cell technologies, cell replacement therapy has ...
    In vitro Osteoclastogenesis Assays Using Primary Mouse Bone Marrow Cells
    Authors:  Xueqian Zhuang and Guohong Hu, date: 06/05/2018, view: 3449, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Osteoclasts are a group of bone-absorbing cells to degenerate bone matrix and play pivotal roles in bone growth and homeostasis. The unbalanced induction of osteoclast differentiation (osteoclastogenesis) in pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis, arthritis and skeleton metastasis of cancer, causes great pain, bone fracture, hypercalcemia ...
    Expansion of Airway Basal Cells and Generation of Polarized Epithelium
    Authors:  Hannah Levardon, Lael M. Yonker, Bryan P. Hurley and Hongmei Mou, date: 06/05/2018, view: 4043, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Airway basal stem cells are the progenitor cells within the airway that exhibit the capacity to self-renew and give rise to multiple types of differentiated airway epithelial cells. This stem cell-derived epithelium displays organized architecture with functional attributes of the airway mucosa. A protocol has been developed to culture and expand ...



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