Molecular Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Three-dimensional Reconstruction and Quantification of Proteins and mRNAs at the Single-cell Level in Cultured Cells
    Authors:  Xueer Jiang, Ingrid Brust-Mascher and Li-En Jao, date: 08/20/2019, view: 525, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Gene expression is often regulated by the abundance, localization, and translation of mRNAs in both space and time. Being able to visualize mRNAs and protein products in single cells is critical to understand this regulatory process. The development of single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) allows the detection of ...
    Purification and Proteomic Analysis of Alphavirus Particles from Sindbis Virus Grown in Mammalian and Insect Cells
    Authors:  Raquel Hernandez, Trevor Glaros, Gabrielle Rizzo and Davis F. Ferreira, date: 05/20/2019, view: 942, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Current mass spectrometry (MS) methods and new instrumentation now allow for more accurate identification of proteins in low abundance than previous protein fractionation and identification methods. It was of interest if this method could serve to define the virus proteome of a membrane-containing virus. To evaluate the efficacy of mass spec to ...
    DNA Immunization Using in vivo Electroporation for Generating Monoclonal Antibodies Against Mouse IL-9R
    [Abstract] Membrane proteins such as cytokine receptors and G protein-coupled receptors can be drug targets. Recently, we have generated specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the mouse IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) and found that IL-9R on memory B cells have critical roles in T-dependent immune response. So far, most antibodies against cell surface proteins ...
    In vitro Protein-DNA Binding Assay (AlphaScreen® Technology)
    Authors:  Mika Nomoto, Yasuomi Tada and Hironaka Tsukagoshi, date: 02/05/2019, view: 1830, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Identification of specific DNA binding sites of transcription factors is important in understanding their functions. Recent techniques allow us to investigate genome-wide in vivo binding positions by chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing. However, to further explore the binding motifs of transcription ...
    Measurement of Redox States of the β3 Integrin Disulfide Bonds by Mass Spectrometry
    Author:  Joyce Chiu, date: 02/05/2019, view: 1195, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Functional disulfide bonds mediate a change in protein function in which they reside when cleaved or formed. To elucidate how a functional disulfide bond controls protein activity, it is critical that the redox state of the bond in the population of protein molecules is known. Measurement of changes in disulfide bond redox state relies on thiol ...
    Immunohistochemical Staining of TLR4 in Human Skeletal Muscle Samples
    Authors:  Daniela Verzola, Samantha Milanesi, Francesca Costigliolo and Giacomo Garibotto, date: 01/20/2019, view: 1311, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Growing evidence suggests the involvement of TLR4, a receptor in the innate immune system, in muscle loss in uremia. Recently, we have evaluated TLR4 in human skeletal muscle from chronic kidney disease patients, by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Unlike the commonly-used Western blot method, immunohistochemistry allows for the ...
    Production, Titration and Imaging of Zika Virus in Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Wesley Freppel, Clément Mazeaud and Laurent Chatel-Chaix, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1948, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Since the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America and the US in 2016, this flavivirus has emerged as a major threat for public health. Indeed, it is now clear that ZIKV is vertically transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus and this may lead to severe neurological development defects including (but not restricted to) neonate ...
    Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA)-SDS-PAGE: A Novel Method for the Detection of O-GlcNAc-modified Proteins by Lectin Affinity Gel Electrophoresis
    Authors:  Ko Fujioka, Yuji Kubota and Mutsuhiro Takekawa, date: 12/05/2018, view: 1785, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Diverse cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins dynamically change their molecular functions by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification on serine and/or threonine residues. Evaluation of the O-GlcNAcylation level of a specific protein, however, needs multiple and time-consuming steps if using conventional methods (e.g., ...
    Analysis of Autophagic Activity Using ATG8 Lipidation Assay in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Authors:  Mengqian Luo and Xiaohong Zhuang, date: 06/20/2018, view: 2591, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] As a fundamental metabolic pathway to degrade and recycle cellular cargos, autophagy is highly induced upon stress, starvation and senescence conditions in plants. A double-membrane structure named autophagosome will form during this process for cargo sequestration and delivery into the vacuole.

    A number of regulators have been ...
    Functional Evaluation of the Signal Peptides of Secreted Proteins
    Authors:  Weixiao Yin, Yufu Wang, Tao Chen, Yang Lin and Chaoxi Luo, date: 05/05/2018, view: 3011, Q&A: 2
    [Abstract] Here, we describe a method that can be used to evaluate the function of predicted signal peptides. This method utilizes the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae YTK12 strain and pSUC2 vector in which the pSUC2 vector with fused predicted signal peptide is transformed into yeast. The function of the signal peptides can be evaluated by using ...



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