Biochemistry

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Assessment of Diadenylate Cyclase and c-di-AMP-phosphodiesterase Activities Using Thin-layer and Ion Exchange Chromatography
    Authors:  Andreas Latoscha, David Jan Drexler, Gregor Witte and Natalia Tschowri, date: 01/05/2021, view: 348, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    All living cells use cyclic nucleotides as second messengers for signal sensing and transduction. Cyclic di-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is primarily involved in the control of bacterial and euryarcheal osmoadaptation and is produced by diadenylate cyclases from two molecules of ATP. Specific phosphodiesterases hydrolyze

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    Analysis of Isotopically-labeled Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol Molecular Species from [14C]Acetate-Labeled Tobacco Leaves
    Authors:  Hari Kiran Kotapati and Philip D. Bates, date: 12/20/2020, view: 380, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Plant lipid metabolism is a dynamic network where synthesis of essential membrane lipids overlaps with synthesis of valuable storage lipids (e.g., vegetable oils). Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is a key component of the chloroplast membrane system required for photosynthesis and is produced by multiple pathways within the lipid metabolic

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    Pipecolic Acid Quantification Using Gas Chromatography-coupled Mass Spectrometry
    Authors:  Keshun Yu, Huazhen Liu and Pradeep Kachroo, date: 12/05/2020, view: 626, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Pipecolic acid (Pip), a non-proteinacious product of lysine catabolism, is an important regulator of immunity in plants and humans alike. For instance, Pip accumulation is associated with the genetic disorder Zellweger syndrome, chronic liver diseases, and pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in humans. In plants, Pip accumulates upon pathogen infection

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    Rapid Isolation and Purification of Secreted Bacteriocins from Streptococcus mutans and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria
    Authors:  Marcus Cheng, Siew-Ging Gong and Céline M. Lévesque, date: 11/20/2020, view: 873, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacteriocins are small ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by some microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a group of Gram-positive bacteria (cocci, rods) expressing high tolerance for low pH. Bacteriocins kill bacteria rapidly and are biologically active at very low concentrations. Bacteriocins produced by LAB ...
    K+ Release Assay and K+ Measurement in Oocyte Assay
    Author:  Hong Li, date: 11/05/2020, view: 716, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Xenopus oocyte is a powerful system for the exogenous expression and functional characterization of plant membrane transport proteins. Until now, a number of potassium transporters and channels have been identified in oocytes expression system by the two-electrode voltage clamp technology. It is difficult to characterize K+ ...
    Quantification of Salivary Charged Metabolites Using Capillary Electrophoresis Time-of-flight-mass Spectrometry
    Authors:  Masahiro Sugimoto, Sana Ota, Miku Kaneko, Ayame Enomoto and Tomoyoshi Soga, date: 10/20/2020, view: 619, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Salivary metabolomics have provided the potentials to detect both oral and systemic diseases. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) enables the identification and quantification of various charged metabolites. This method has been employed to biomarker discoveries using human saliva samples, especially for various ...
    A Protocol for Flavonols, Kaempferol and Quercetin, Staining in Plant Root Tips
    Author:  Nguyen Hoai Nguyen, date: 10/05/2020, view: 798, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Flavonols are a subclass of flavonoids of the group of plant secondary metabolites. In planta, flavonols play various functions such as antioxidant and natural regulator of auxin polar transport. Many lines of evidence have shown that flavonols also contribute to human health in anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and even prevention some ...
    Determination of the Cellular Ion Concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using ICP-AES
    Authors:  Louise Thines, Anne Iserentant and Pierre Morsomme, date: 08/20/2020, view: 857, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been perceived over decades as a highly valuable model organism for the investigation of ion homeostasis. Indeed, many of the genes and biological systems that function in yeast ion homeostasis are conserved throughout unicellular eukaryotes to humans. In this context, measurement of the yeast ...
    Gas Chromatography Detection Protocol of Short-chain Fatty Acids in Mice Feces
    Authors:  Chaozheng Zhang, An Liu, Tianshuang Zhang, Yi Li and Hua Zhao, date: 07/05/2020, view: 1189, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are formed mainly by bacteria fermenting undigested carbohydrates in the colon, they are based on the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain. Organic fatty acids with less than 6 carbon atoms are called short-chain fatty acids. SCFAs are closely related to various aspects of the human body, so more and ...
    Pancreatic Acinar Cell Preparation for Oxygen Consumption and Lactate Production Analysis
    Authors:  Jane A. Armstrong, Robert Sutton and David N. Criddle, date: 05/20/2020, view: 1185, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mitochondrial dysfunction is a principal feature of acute pancreatitis (AP) although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. AP precipitants induce Ca2+-dependent formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in pancreatic acinar cells (PACs), leading to ATP depletion and necrosis. Evaluations of mitochondrial ...



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