Biochemistry

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Enrichment of Vascular Fragments from Mouse Embryonic Brains for Endothelial Cell Analysis
    Authors:  Nicolas Santander and Thomas D. Arnold, date: 06/20/2021, view: 949, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Endothelial cells in the brain interact with other cell types, forming the blood-brain barrier. This barrier controls the movement of solutes into and out of the brain, regulating pathophysiological processes and drug delivery to the brain. Common isolation methods used to study these cells during embryonic development involve enzymatic treatment

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    Fluorescence-based Heme Quantitation in Toxoplasma Gondii
    Authors:  Amy Bergmann and Zhicheng Dou, date: 06/20/2021, view: 905, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoan pathogen throughout the world. As a eukaryotic intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma ingests nutrients from host cells to support its intracellular growth. The parasites also encode full or partial metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of certain nutrients, such as heme. Heme is an essential

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    Histological Methods to Detect Early-stage Plant Defense Responses during Artificial Inoculation of Lolium perenne with Epichloë festucae
    Authors:  Mostafa Rahnama, Damien J. Fleetwood and Richard D. Johnson, date: 05/05/2021, view: 3162, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Epichloë species form agriculturally important symbioses with many cool season grasses. To study these symbioses, such as the interaction of Epichloë festucae with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), host plants can be infected by artificial inoculation of etiolated seedlings. This inoculation is performed by placing mycelium into an

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    Atomic Force Microscopy to Characterize Ginger Lipid-Derived Nanoparticles (GLDNP)
    Authors:  Dingpei Long, Chunhua Yang, Junsik Sung and Didier Merlin, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2639, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    We have demonstrated that a specific population of ginger-derived nanoparticles (GDNP-2) could effectively target the colon, reduce colitis, and alleviate colitis-associated colon cancer. Naturally occurring GDNP-2 contains complex bioactive components, including lipids, proteins, miRNAs, and ginger secondary metabolites (gingerols and shogaols).

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    Tracing Nitrogen Metabolism in Mouse Tissues with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    Authors:  Rong Xu, Yekai Wang and Jianhai Du, date: 02/20/2021, view: 1253, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Nitrogen-containing metabolites including ammonia, amino acids, and nucleotides, are essential for cell metabolism, growth, and neural transmission. Nitrogen metabolism is tightly coordinated with carbon metabolism in the breakdown and biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides. Both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

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    Ecdysone Quantification from Whole Body Samples of Drosophila melanogaster Larvae
    Authors:  Takashi Koyama and Christen K. Mirth, date: 02/05/2021, view: 835, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Steroid hormones strictly control the timing of sexual maturation and final body size both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In insects, the steroid hormone ecdysone controls the timing of the molts between larval instars as well as the transition to metamorphosis. Growth during the final instar accounts for over 80% of the increase in final mass

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    Assessment of Diadenylate Cyclase and c-di-AMP-phosphodiesterase Activities Using Thin-layer and Ion Exchange Chromatography
    Authors:  Andreas Latoscha, David Jan Drexler, Gregor Witte and Natalia Tschowri, date: 01/05/2021, view: 1027, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    All living cells use cyclic nucleotides as second messengers for signal sensing and transduction. Cyclic di-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is primarily involved in the control of bacterial and euryarcheal osmoadaptation and is produced by diadenylate cyclases from two molecules of ATP. Specific phosphodiesterases hydrolyze

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    Analysis of Isotopically-labeled Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol Molecular Species from [14C]Acetate-Labeled Tobacco Leaves
    Authors:  Hari Kiran Kotapati and Philip D. Bates, date: 12/20/2020, view: 928, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Plant lipid metabolism is a dynamic network where synthesis of essential membrane lipids overlaps with synthesis of valuable storage lipids (e.g., vegetable oils). Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is a key component of the chloroplast membrane system required for photosynthesis and is produced by multiple pathways within the lipid metabolic

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    Pipecolic Acid Quantification Using Gas Chromatography-coupled Mass Spectrometry
    Authors:  Keshun Yu, Huazhen Liu and Pradeep Kachroo, date: 12/05/2020, view: 1389, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Pipecolic acid (Pip), a non-proteinacious product of lysine catabolism, is an important regulator of immunity in plants and humans alike. For instance, Pip accumulation is associated with the genetic disorder Zellweger syndrome, chronic liver diseases, and pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in humans. In plants, Pip accumulates upon pathogen infection

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    Rapid Isolation and Purification of Secreted Bacteriocins from Streptococcus mutans and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria
    Authors:  Marcus Cheng, Siew-Ging Gong and Céline M. Lévesque, date: 11/20/2020, view: 1923, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacteriocins are small ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by some microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a group of Gram-positive bacteria (cocci, rods) expressing high tolerance for low pH. Bacteriocins kill bacteria rapidly and are biologically active at very low concentrations. Bacteriocins produced by LAB ...



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