Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Propagation, Titration and Single-step Growth Curves
    [Abstract] Given the endemic seroprevalence of herpes simplex viruses (HSV), its associated human diseases, and the emergence of acyclovir-resistant strains, there is a continuous need for better antiviral therapies. Towards this aim, identifying mechanistic details of how HSV-1 manipulates infected cells, how it modulates the immune responses, and how it ...
    Method for Assessing Virulence of Colletotrichum higginsianum on Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves Using Automated Lesion Area Detection and Measurement
    Authors:  Ayako Tsushima, Pamela Gan and Ken Shirasu, date: 11/20/2019, view: 575, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum is widely used to understand infection mechanisms, as it infects the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To determine the virulence of C. higginsianum, several methods have been developed, such as disease reaction scoring, lesion measurement, entry rate assays, and ...
    Assessing Different Ways of Bacillus subtilis Spreading over Abiotic Surfaces
    Authors:  Marco Bartolini and Roberto Grau, date: 11/20/2019, view: 307, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Surface-associate motility on biotic and abiotic environments is a key mechanism used by the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis and its closest relatives (i.e., B. amyloliquefaciens, B. thuringiensis, B. cereus, B. pumilus) for surface colonization and spreading across surfaces. The study of ...
    Model of Chemotherapy-associated Mucositis and Oral Opportunistic Infections
    Authors:  Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson and Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou, date: 11/05/2019, view: 203, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Oral mucositis is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy treatment. Because of the lack of relevant oral mucositis experimental models, it is not clear how chemotherapeutic agents injure the oral mucosa and if commensal microorganisms accelerate tissue damage. We developed an organotypic oral mucosa model that mimics cellular responses ...
    Amplex Red Assay for Measuring Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Ozgur Karakuzu, Melissa R. Cruz, Yi Liu and Danielle A. Garsin, date: 11/05/2019, view: 304, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Reagents such as Amplex® Red have been developed for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and are used to measure the release of H2O2 from biological samples such as mammalian leukocytes undergoing the oxidative burst. Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a model host in the study ...
    Production of Quantum Dots-containing Influenza Virus Particles for Studying Viral Uncoating Processes
    Authors:  Chong Qin, Xiaowei Zhang and Zongqiang Cui, date: 09/20/2019, view: 354, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The genome of influenza A virus (IAV) comprises eight pinlike genomic segments called vRNPs enclosed in viral capsid. During infection, uncoating is the key step for viral replication and represents an antiviral therapeutic target, but it is difficult to observe the transient and dynamic event in detail. Here, we report a protocol for production ...
    Visualizing Hypoxia in a Murine Model of Candida albicans Infection Using in vivo Biofluorencence
    Authors:  José Pedro Lopes and Constantin F. Urban, date: 08/05/2019, view: 668, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Candida albicans is a leading human fungal pathogen that uses several metabolic adaptations to escape immune cells and causes systemic disease. Here, we describe a protocol for measuring one of these adaptations, the ability to thrive in hypoxic niches. Hypoxia was generated after successful subdermal infection with C. albicans ...
    Image-based Quantification of Direct Cell-to-cell Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
    Authors:  Fernando Merwaiss and Diego E. Alvarez, date: 08/05/2019, view: 550, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Different viruses rely on direct cell-to-cell transmission to propagate infection within the infected host. Measuring this mode of transmission in cultured cells is often complicated by the contribution of cell free viruses to spread, and the difficulty to distinguish between primary infected cells that produce the virus and neighboring cells that ...
    Endocytosis Detection in Magnaporthe oryzae
    Authors:  Muxing Liu and Zhengguang Zhang, date: 08/05/2019, view: 544, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Endocytosis is an intracellular trafficking pathway that occurs in nutrient uptake, signal transduction and reconstruction of cell polarity and is conserved in eukaryotic cells. In fungi, endocytosis plays crucial roles in the physiology of hyphal growth and pathogenicity. vidence for endocytosis in filamentous fungi is detected by the ...
    Quantification of Blumenol Derivatives as Leaf Biomarkers for Plant-AMF Association
    Authors:  Elisabeth Mindt, Ming Wang, Martin Schäfer, Rayko Halitschke and Ian T. Baldwin, date: 07/20/2019, view: 1090, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants are widespread among land plants and can be beneficial for both partners. The plant is provided with mineral nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, whereas it provides carbon resources for the fungus in return. Due to the large economic and environmental impact, ...



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