Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Isolation and Characterization of Membrane Vesicles from Lactobacillus Species
    Authors:  Julie C. Caruana, Scott N. Dean and Scott A. Walper, date: 09/05/2021, view: 712, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Throughout their life cycle, bacteria shed portions of their outermost membrane comprised of proteins, lipids, and a diversity of other biomolecules. These biological nanoparticles have been shown to have a range of highly diverse biological activities, including pathogenesis, community regulation, and cellular defense (among others). In recent

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    Plasmodium cynomolgi Berok Growth Inhibition Assay by Thiol-reactive Probe Based Flow Cytometric Measurement
    Authors:  Jessica Jie Ying Ong, Bruce Russell and Jin-Hee Han, date: 09/05/2021, view: 599, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The relapsing malaria species, Plasmodium vivax, is the most widely distributed and difficult-to-treat cause of human malaria. The merozoites of P. vivax preferentially invade ephemeral human CD71+ reticulocytes (nascent reticulocytes), thereby limiting the development of a robust continuous culture in vitro. Fortunately, P. vivax’s sister

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    Production, quantification, and infection of Amazonian Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae)
    [Abstract]

    Phlebotomine vectors, sand flies of the order Diptera, are known to transmit Leishmania parasites as well as RNA viruses (arboviruses) to humans. The arbovirus, Icoaraci Phlebovirus (BeAN 24262 - ICOV), used in this study was isolated from Nectomys rodents, a mammalian species that is the same natural sylvatic reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania)

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    Yeast Lipid Extraction and Analysis by HPTLC
    Authors:  Dan Li, Zheng-Tan Zhang, Cheng-Wen He and Zhiping Xie, date: 07/05/2021, view: 1092, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The diversity of lipid structures, properties, and combinations in biological tissues makes their extraction and analysis an experimental challenge. Accordingly, even for one of the simplest single-cellular fungi, the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), numerous extraction and analysis protocols have been developed to separate and quantitate

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    Sex-specific Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Populations
    Authors:  Melanie C. Ridgway, Daniela Cihalova and Alexander G. Maier, date: 06/05/2021, view: 1246, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular eukaryotic parasite that causes malaria in humans. The parasite is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes after ingestion of sexual stage parasites known as gametocytes. Malaria transmission depends on parasites switching from the disease-causing asexual blood forms to male and female gametocytes. The current

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    Tracking the Subcellular Localization of Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus by Immunofluorescence Microscopy
    Authors:  Salvatore J. Scaffidi, Mac A. Shebes and Wenqi Yu, date: 05/20/2021, view: 3266, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria play essential roles in bacterial colonization and host-microbe interactions. Surface protein precursors containing a YSIRK/GXXS signal peptide are translocated across the septal membrane at mid-cell, anchored to the cell wall peptidoglycan at the cross-wall compartment,

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    Isolation of GFP-expressing Malarial Hypnozoites by Flow Cytometry Cell Sorting
    Authors:  Annemarie Voorberg-van der Wel, Sam O. Hoffman and Clemens H. M. Kocken, date: 05/05/2021, view: 1553, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Hypnozoites are dormant liver-stage parasites unique to relapsing malarial species, including the important human pathogen Plasmodium vivax, and pose a barrier to the elimination of malaria. Little is known regarding the biology of these stages, largely due to their inaccessible location. Hypnozoites can be cultured in vitro but these cultures

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    Single Cell Analysis and Sorting of Aspergillus fumigatus by Flow Cytometry
    Authors:  Gareth Howell and Robert-Jan Bleichrodt, date: 04/20/2021, view: 1814, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Experimental results in fungal biology research are usually obtained as average measurements across whole populations of cells, whilst ignoring what is happening at the single cell level. Microscopy has allowed us to study single-cell behavior, but it has low throughput and cannot be used to select individual cells for downstream experiments. Here

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    Detection and Quantification of African Swine Fever Virus in MA-104 Cells
    [Abstract]

    Detection of live African swine fever virus (ASFV) has historically relied on the use of primary swine macrophages (PSM). PSM do not replicate and have to be isolated fresh from donor swine. We previously identified that a MA-104 cells (ATCC #CRL-2378.1), a commercially available cell line isolated from African green monkey (Cercopithecus

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    Generation and Implementation of Reporter BHK-21 Cells for Live Imaging of Flavivirus Infection
    Authors:  Jorge L. Arias-Arias and Rodrigo Mora-Rodríguez, date: 03/05/2021, view: 1067, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae includes many viral species of medical importance, such as yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and dengue virus (DENV), among others. Presently, the identification of flavivirus-infected cells is based on either the immunolabeling of viral proteins, the application of recombinant

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