Neuroscience

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Ethanol-induced Sedative Behavior: An Assay to Investigate Increased Dopamine Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Anuradha Singh, Kavita Babu and Pratima Pandey, date: 07/05/2021, view: 602, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Dopamine (DA) signaling affects locomotion, feeding, learning, and memory in C. elegans. Various assays have been developed to study the proteins involved in these behaviors; however, these assays show behavioral output only when there is a drastic change in DA levels. We designed an assay capable of observing behavioral output even with only

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    In vivo Optical Access to Olfactory Sensory Neurons in the Mouse Olfactory Epithelium
    Authors:  Shigenori Inagaki, Ryo Iwata and Takeshi Imai, date: 06/20/2021, view: 1023, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    In neuroscience, it is fundamental to understand how sensory stimuli are translated into neural activity at the entry point of sensory systems. In the olfactory system, odorants inhaled into the nasal cavity are detected by ~1,000 types of odorant receptors (ORs) that are expressed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Since each OSN expresses only

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    Operant Vapor Self-administration in Mice
    [Abstract]

    Models of drug addiction in rodents are instrumental in understanding the underlying neurobiology. Intravenous self-administration of drugs in mice is currently the most commonly used model; however, several challenges exist due to complications related to catheter patency. To take full advantage of the genetic tools available to study opioid

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    A Time Duration Discrimination Task for the Study of Elapsed Time Processing in Rats
    [Abstract]

    Space and time are both essential features of episodic memory. However, while spatial tasks have been used effectively to study the behavioral relevance of place cells, the behavioral paradigms utilized for the study of time cells have not used time duration as a variable that animals need to be aware of to solve the task. In order to evaluate how

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    Dissociating Behavior and Spatial Working Memory Demands Using an H Maze
    Authors:  Hannah S. Wirtshafter, Moqing Quan and Matthew A. Wilson, date: 03/05/2021, view: 969, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The development of mazes for animal experiments has allowed for the investigation of cognitive maps and place cells, spatial working memory, naturalistic navigation, perseverance, exploration, and choice and motivated behavior. However, many mazes, such as the T maze, currently developed to test learning and memory, do not distinguish temporally

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    Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Activity under Gradually Changing Odor Stimulation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Yuki Tanimoto and Koutarou D. Kimura, date: 01/05/2021, view: 1179, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Olfactory behavior is among the most fundamental animal behaviors both in the wild and in the laboratory. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying olfactory behavior, it is critical to measure neural responses to odorant concentration changes resembling those that animals actually sense during olfactory behavior. However, reproducing the

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    Treadmill Running of Mouse as a Model for Studying Influence of Maternal Exercise on Offspring
    Authors:  Song Ah Chae, Jun Seok Son, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jeanene M. de Avila and Min Du, date: 12/05/2020, view: 1358, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Epidemiological studies robustly show the beneficial effects of maternal exercise in reducing maternal birth complications and improving neonatal outcomes, though underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To facilitate mechanistic exploration, a protocol for maternal exercise of mice is established, with the regimen following the exercise

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    Visual-looming Shadow Task with in-vivo Calcium Activity Monitoring to Assess Defensive Behaviors in Mice
    [Abstract] There has been a clear movement in recent years towards the adoption of more naturalistic experimental regimes for the study of behavior and its underlying neural architecture. Here we provide a protocol that allows experimenters working with mice, to mimic a looming and advancing predatory threat from the sky. This approach is easy to implement ...
    An Operant Conditioning Model Combined with a Chemogenetic Approach to Study the Neurobiology of Food Addiction in Mice
    Authors:  Elena Martín-García, Laura Domingo-Rodriguez and Rafael Maldonado, date: 10/05/2020, view: 1481, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The study of food addiction comprises 3 hallmarks that include the persistence to response without an outcome, the strong motivation for palatable food, and the loss of inhibitory control over food intake that leads to compulsive behavior in addicted individuals. The complex multifactorial nature of this disorder and the unknown neurobiological ...
    Long-term Devocalization of Zebra Finches
    Authors:  Yunbok Kim, Daisuke Mizuguchi and Satoshi Kojima, date: 09/20/2020, view: 1857, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Songbirds, such as the zebra finch, are a popular animal model for studying the neural basis of vocal and complex skill learning. Adult male zebra finches produce courtship song toward females (referred to as ‘directed song’) and recording and analyzing sounds of directed song along with underlying neural activity is important for investigating ...



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