Neuroscience

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Examining Cocaine Conditioning Place Preference in Mice
    Authors:  MaryElizabeth J. Simkevich, Rianne R. Campbell and André O. White, date: 04/20/2020, view: 553, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A key component of combating substance use disorders is understanding the neural mechanisms that support drug reward. Tasks such as self-administration assess the reinforcing properties of a drug using a learned behavior but require numerous training sessions and surgery. In comparison, the conditioned place preference (CPP) task assesses reward ...
    The Mouse Gambling Task: Assessing Individual Decision-making Strategies in Mice
    Authors:  Elsa Pittaras, Arnaud Rabat and Sylvie Granon, date: 01/05/2020, view: 1114, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Decision-making is a complex cognitive process which consists of choosing one option among several alternatives. In humans, this process is featured in the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a decision-making task that mimics real life situations by reproducing uncertain conditions based on probabilistic rewards or penalties (see Background). Several ...
    Construction of Viral Vectors for Cell Type-specific CRISPR Gene Editing in the Adult Mouse Brain
    Authors:  Hiroshi Yamaguchi and Luis de Lecea, date: 08/20/2019, view: 1664, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recently developed gene editing technologies based on engineered CRISPR/Cas9 systems enables researchers to disrupt genes in a cell type-specific manner in the adult mouse brain. Using these technologies, we recently showed that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene in Locus Coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine neurons plays a vital role in the maintenance ...
    Looking through Brains with Fast Passive CLARITY: Zebrafish, Rodents, Non-human Primates and Humans
    Authors:  Farzad Mortazavi, Alexander J. Stankiewicz and Irina V. Zhdanova, date: 08/05/2019, view: 2781, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recently developed CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ-hybridization-compatible Tis-sue-hYdrogel) technique renders the tissue transparent by removing lipids in the tissue, while preserving and stabilizing the cellular and subcellular structures. This provides effective penetration of diverse ...
    Accessing Olfactory Habituation in Drosophila melanogaster with a T-maze Paradigm
    Authors:  Ourania Semelidou, Summer F. Acevedo and Efthimios M.C. Skoulakis, date: 06/05/2019, view: 2123, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Habituation is the process whereby perceptual changes alter the value of environmental stimuli, enabling salience filtering. This behavioral response decrement is a form of non-associative learning, where the subject learns about the stimulus and does not involve sensory adaptation, sensory or motor fatigue. The range of behavioral responses in D. ...
    High-resolution Immunoelectron Microscopy Techniques for Revealing Distinct Subcellular Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Domains in Brain
    [Abstract] Activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors by endogenous, exogenous (cannabis derivatives) or synthetic cannabinoids (i.e., CP 55.940, Win-2) has a wide variety of behavioral effects due to the presence of CB1 receptors in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques have been ...
    Optical Clearing and Index Matching of Tissue Samples for High-resolution Fluorescence Imaging Using SeeDB2
    Authors:  Meng-Tsen Ke and Takeshi Imai, date: 10/20/2018, view: 5220, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Tissue clearing techniques are useful for large-scale three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of thick tissues. However, high-resolution imaging deep inside tissues has been challenging, as it is extremely sensitive to light scattering and spherical aberrations. Here, we present a water-based optical clearing and mounting media, SeeDB2, which is ...
    Artificial Inhalation Protocol in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Thomas P. Eiting and Matt Wachowiak, date: 09/20/2018, view: 2379, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Research in the area of in vivo olfactory physiology benefits from having direct access to the nasal airways through which odorants can be presented. Ordinarily, the passage of odorants through the airways is controlled by respiratory rhythm. This fact makes it difficult to control the timing and strength of an olfactory stimulus, since ...
    Quantitative Electron Microscopic Assay Using Random Sampling from Single Sections to Test Plastic Synaptic Changes in Hippocampus
    Authors:  G. Mark Marcello, Lilla E. Szabó, Peter Sotonyi and Bence Rácz, date: 08/05/2018, view: 2765, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Studies over several decades on the organization of the CA1 hippocampus–a particularly favorable model for learning, memory and certain forms of cognition–have shown that the synaptic network in this brain region is plastic (Fortin et al., 2012). Recent evidence suggests that a number of environmental and endogenous stimuli may have a ...
    Embryonic Intravitreous Injection in Mouse
    Authors:  Liyuan Cui, Yupu Diao and Jiayi Zhang, date: 07/20/2018, view: 2478, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) relay visual information from the retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC), which are two major image-forming visual nuclei. Wiring of these retinal projections completes before vision begins. However, there are few studies on retinal axons at embryonic stage due to technical ...



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