Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans Sperm Number, Size, Activation, and Mitochondrial Content
    Authors:  Amy M. Hammerquist, Chia-An Yen and Sean P. Curran, date: 06/05/2021, view: 168, Q&A: 0

    Infertility is a widespread and often unexplained issue. Studying reproduction using C. elegans males offers insight into the influence of individual factors on male fertility in humans. We have created a collection of protocols to assess several

    ...
    Muscle Cryoinjury and Quantification of Regenerating Myofibers in Mice
    Authors:  Yori Endo, Mehran Karvar and Indranil Sinha, date: 06/05/2021, view: 144, Q&A: 0

    Cryoinjury, or injury due to freezing, is a method of creating reproducible, local injuries in skeletal muscle. This method allows studying the regenerative response following muscle injuries in vivo, thus enabling the evaluation of local and

    ...
    Rice Root Hair Phenotypes Imaged by Cryo-SEM

    Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was first introduced for scientific use in the 1980s. Since then, cryo-SEM has become a routine technique for studying the surfaces and internal structures of biological samples with a high water content.

    ...
    Quantitation of Secretory Granule Size in Drosophila Larval Salivary Glands
    Authors:  Cheng-I J. Ma and Julie A. Brill, date: 06/05/2021, view: 159, Q&A: 0

    Maturation of secretory granules is a crucial process that ensures the bioactivity of cargo proteins undergoing regulated secretion. In Drosophila melanogaster, the larval salivary glands produce secretory granules that are up to four-fold larger in

    ...
    Visualization and Quantitation of Wg trafficking in the Drosophila Wing Imaginal Epithelium

    Secretory Wnt trafficking can be studied in the polarized epithelial monolayer of Drosophila wing imaginal discs (WID). In this tissue, Wg (Drosophila Wnt-I) is presented on the apical surface of its source cells before being internalized into the

    ...
    Preparation of Doublet Microtubule Fraction for Single Particle Cryo-electron Microscopy
    Authors:  Corbin Black, Daniel Chen Dai, Katya Peri, Muneyoshi Ichikawa and Khanh Huy Bui, date: 06/05/2021, view: 204, Q&A: 0

    Over the years, studying the ultrastructure of the eukaryotic cilia/flagella using electron microscopy (EM) has contributed significantly toward our understanding of ciliary function. Major complexes in the cilia, such as inner and outer dynein

    ...
    Isolation of First-Trimester and Full-term Human Placental Hofbauer Cells
    Authors:  Anna Appios, Jake R. Thomas and Naomi McGovern, date: 06/05/2021, view: 548, Q&A: 0

    The placenta is the crucial organ that regulates the health of both mother and fetus during pregnancy. The human placenta is composed of villous tree-like structures that embed into the maternal decidua. Within the stroma of the villi resides a

    ...
    Sex-specific Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Populations
    Authors:  Melanie C. Ridgway, Daniela Cihalova and Alexander G. Maier, date: 06/05/2021, view: 125, Q&A: 0

    Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular eukaryotic parasite that causes malaria in humans. The parasite is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes after ingestion of sexual stage parasites known as gametocytes. Malaria transmission depends on parasites

    ...
    In vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Extracellular ATP in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex with a Hybrid-type Optical Sensor

    Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) works as an extracellular signaling molecule for cells in the brain, such as neurons and glia. Cellular communication via release of ATP is involved in a range of processes required for normal brain functions,

    ...
    Mechanical Fractionation of Cultured Neuronal Cells into Cell Body and Neurite Fractions
    Authors:  Ankita Arora, Raeann Goering, Hei-Yong G. Lo and J. Matthew Taliaferro, date: 06/05/2021, view: 406, Q&A: 0

    Many cells contain spatially defined subcellular regions that perform specialized tasks enabled by localized proteins. The subcellular distribution of these localized proteins is often facilitated by the subcellular localization of the RNA molecules

    ...
    Generation and Maintenance of Homogeneous Human Midbrain Organoids
    Authors:  Henrik Renner, Martha Grabos, Hans R. Schöler and Jan M. Bruder, date: 06/05/2021, view: 205, Q&A: 0

    Three-dimensional cell cultures (“organoids”) promise to better recapitulate native tissue physiology than traditional 2D cultures and are becoming increasingly interesting for disease modeling and compound screening efforts. While a

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    Generation and Maintenance of Homogeneous Human Midbrain Organoids
    Authors:  Henrik Renner, Martha Grabos, Hans R. Schöler and Jan M. Bruder, date: 06/05/2021, view: 205, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Three-dimensional cell cultures (“organoids”) promise to better recapitulate native tissue physiology than traditional 2D cultures and are becoming increasingly interesting for disease modeling and compound screening efforts. While a number of protocols for the generation of neural organoids have been published, most protocols require

    ...
    Mechanical Fractionation of Cultured Neuronal Cells into Cell Body and Neurite Fractions
    Authors:  Ankita Arora, Raeann Goering, Hei-Yong G. Lo and J. Matthew Taliaferro, date: 06/05/2021, view: 406, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Many cells contain spatially defined subcellular regions that perform specialized tasks enabled by localized proteins. The subcellular distribution of these localized proteins is often facilitated by the subcellular localization of the RNA molecules that encode them. A key question in the study of this process of RNA localization is the

    ...
    In vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Extracellular ATP in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex with a Hybrid-type Optical Sensor
    [Abstract]

    Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) works as an extracellular signaling molecule for cells in the brain, such as neurons and glia. Cellular communication via release of ATP is involved in a range of processes required for normal brain functions, and aberrant communication is associated with brain disorders. To investigate the mechanisms

    ...
    Sex-specific Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Populations
    Authors:  Melanie C. Ridgway, Daniela Cihalova and Alexander G. Maier, date: 06/05/2021, view: 125, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular eukaryotic parasite that causes malaria in humans. The parasite is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes after ingestion of sexual stage parasites known as gametocytes. Malaria transmission depends on parasites switching from the disease-causing asexual blood forms to male and female gametocytes. The current

    ...
    Isolation of First-Trimester and Full-term Human Placental Hofbauer Cells
    Authors:  Anna Appios, Jake R. Thomas and Naomi McGovern, date: 06/05/2021, view: 548, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The placenta is the crucial organ that regulates the health of both mother and fetus during pregnancy. The human placenta is composed of villous tree-like structures that embed into the maternal decidua. Within the stroma of the villi resides a population of fetally-derived macrophages, the Hofbauer cells (HBC). HBC are the only fetal immune cells

    ...
    Preparation of Doublet Microtubule Fraction for Single Particle Cryo-electron Microscopy
    Authors:  Corbin Black, Daniel Chen Dai, Katya Peri, Muneyoshi Ichikawa and Khanh Huy Bui, date: 06/05/2021, view: 204, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Over the years, studying the ultrastructure of the eukaryotic cilia/flagella using electron microscopy (EM) has contributed significantly toward our understanding of ciliary function. Major complexes in the cilia, such as inner and outer dynein arms, radial spokes, and dynein regulatory complexes, were originally discovered by EM. Classical

    ...
    Visualization and Quantitation of Wg trafficking in the Drosophila Wing Imaginal Epithelium
    [Abstract]

    Secretory Wnt trafficking can be studied in the polarized epithelial monolayer of Drosophila wing imaginal discs (WID). In this tissue, Wg (Drosophila Wnt-I) is presented on the apical surface of its source cells before being internalized into the endosomal pathway. Long-range Wg secretion and spread depend on secondary secretion from endosomal

    ...
    Quantitation of Secretory Granule Size in Drosophila Larval Salivary Glands
    Authors:  Cheng-I J. Ma and Julie A. Brill, date: 06/05/2021, view: 159, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Maturation of secretory granules is a crucial process that ensures the bioactivity of cargo proteins undergoing regulated secretion. In Drosophila melanogaster, the larval salivary glands produce secretory granules that are up to four-fold larger in cross-sectional area after maturation. Therefore, we developed a live imaging microscopy approach

    ...
    Rice Root Hair Phenotypes Imaged by Cryo-SEM
    [Abstract]

    Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was first introduced for scientific use in the 1980s. Since then, cryo-SEM has become a routine technique for studying the surfaces and internal structures of biological samples with a high water content. In contrast to traditional SEM, cryo-SEM requires no sample pretreatment processes; thus, we can

    ...
    Muscle Cryoinjury and Quantification of Regenerating Myofibers in Mice
    Authors:  Yori Endo, Mehran Karvar and Indranil Sinha, date: 06/05/2021, view: 144, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Cryoinjury, or injury due to freezing, is a method of creating reproducible, local injuries in skeletal muscle. This method allows studying the regenerative response following muscle injuries in vivo, thus enabling the evaluation of local and systemic factors that influence the processes of myofiber regeneration. Cryoinjuries are applicable to the

    ...



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