Biological Sciences

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Cryptococcus neoformans Virulence Assay Using a Galleria mellonella Larvae Model System
    Authors:  Piotr R. Stempinski, Daniel F. Q. Smith and Arturo Casadevall, date: 08/05/2022, view: 745, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a human pathogenic fungus that can cause pulmonary infections and meningitis in both immunocompromised and otherwise healthy individuals. Limited treatment options and a high mortality rate underlie the necessity for extensive research of the virulence of C. neoformans. Here we describe a detailed protocol for using the

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    Analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans Aging-related Neurodegeneration in Chemosensory Neurons
    Authors:  Cira Crespo and Roberto Grau, date: 07/20/2022, view: 882, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Aging and neuronal deterioration constitute important risk factors for the development of neuronal-related diseases, such as different dementia. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a popular model system for studying neurodegeneration diseases, due to its complete neuronal connectivity map. DiI is a red fluorescent dye that can

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    A Modified Fluctuation Assay with a CAN1 Reporter in Yeast
    Authors:  Pengyao Jiang, Anja R. Ollodart and Maitreya J. Dunham, date: 06/05/2022, view: 858, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Understanding the generation of mutations is fundamental to understanding evolution and genetic disease; however, the rarity of such events makes experimentally identifying them difficult. Mutation accumulation (MA) methods have been widely used. MA lines require serial bottlenecks to fix de novo mutations, followed by whole-genome sequencing.

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    Rhizoctonia solani Infection Assay of Young Sugar Beet and Arabidopsis plantlets
    Authors:  Fredrik Dölfors, Louise Holmquist, Georgios Tzelepis and Christina Dixelius, date: 01/20/2022, view: 1730, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus, which rarely produces any spores in culture. Hence, all inoculation procedures are based on mycelia, often as a coat on cereal kernels, placed in close vicinity to the plant to be infected. In this protocol, an inoculation method is described where the fungus is first allowed to infest a perlite-maize

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    A Retro-orbital Sinus Injection Mouse Model to Study Early Events and Reorganization of the Astrocytic Network during Pneumococcal Meningitis
    Authors:  Chakir Bello, Martine Cohen-Salmon and Guy Tran Van Nhieu, date: 12/05/2021, view: 1145, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Pneumococcal (PN) meningitis is a life-threatening disease with high mortality rates that leads to permanent neurological sequelae. Studies of the process of bacterial crossing of the blood brain barrier (BBB) are hampered by the lack of relevant in vitro and in vivo models of meningitis that recapitulate the human disease. PN meningitis involves

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    Quantification of RuBisCO Expression and Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution in Cyanobacteria
    Authors:  Mateusz Kędzior and Betul Kacar, date: 10/20/2021, view: 1291, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Phototrophic microorganisms are frequently engineered to regulate the expression and the activity of targeted enzymes of interest for specific biotechnological and agricultural applications. This protocol describes a method to evaluate the expression of RuBisCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in the model cyanobacterium

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    Intrathoracic Inoculation of Zika Virus in Aedes aegypti
    Authors:  Irma Sanchez-Vargas, Adeline E. Williams, Alexander W.E. Franz and Ken E. Olson, date: 09/20/2021, view: 1382, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of many medically relevant arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses, including Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and yellow fever (YFV). Vector competence studies with Ae. aegypti often involve challenging mosquitoes with an artificial bloodmeal containing virus and later quantifying viral titer or infectious

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    Isolation and Characterization of Membrane Vesicles from Lactobacillus Species
    Authors:  Julie C. Caruana, Scott N. Dean and Scott A. Walper, date: 09/05/2021, view: 2173, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Throughout their life cycle, bacteria shed portions of their outermost membrane comprised of proteins, lipids, and a diversity of other biomolecules. These biological nanoparticles have been shown to have a range of highly diverse biological activities, including pathogenesis, community regulation, and cellular defense (among others). In recent

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    Tomato Stem Injection for the Precise Assessment of Ralstonia solanacearum Fitness in Planta
    Authors:  Yaru Wang, Liu Xian, Gang Yu and Alberto P. Macho, date: 08/20/2021, view: 1773, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne pathogen with worldwide distribution that causes bacterial wilt disease in more than 250 plant species. R. solanacearum invades plants through the roots, reaches the vascular system, and colonizes the whole plant by moving through the xylem, where it eventually replicates rapidly, causing plant death. Usual

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    Single or Repeated Ablation of Mouse Olfactory Epithelium by Methimazole
    Authors:  Sofia Håglin, Staffan Bohm and Anna Berghard, date: 04/20/2021, view: 3565, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Odor-detecting olfactory sensory neurons residing in the nasal olfactory epithelium (OE) are the only neurons in direct contact with the external environment. As a result, these neurons are subjected to chemical, physical, and infectious insults, which may be the underlying reason why neurogenesis occurs in the OE of adult mammals. This feature

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