Immunology

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    Isolation of Microglia and Analysis of Protein Expression by Flow Cytometry: Avoiding the Pitfall of Microglia Background Autofluorescence
    Authors:  Jeremy C. Burns, Richard M. Ransohoff and Michaël Mingueneau, date: 07/20/2021, view: 56, Q&A: 0

    Microglia are a unique type of tissue-resident innate immune cell found within the brain, spinal cord, and retina. In the healthy nervous system, their main functions are to defend the tissue against infectious microbes, support neuronal networks

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    Production, quantification, and infection of Amazonian Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae)

    Phlebotomine vectors, sand flies of the order Diptera, are known to transmit Leishmania parasites as well as RNA viruses (arboviruses) to humans. The arbovirus, Icoaraci Phlebovirus (BeAN 24262 - ICOV), used in this study was isolated from Nectomys

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    A Lipidomics Approach to Measure Phosphatidic Acid Species in Subcellular Membrane Fractions Obtained from Cultured Cells
    Authors:  Nawal Kassas, Laetitia Fouillen, Stéphane Gasman and Nicolas Vitale, date: 06/20/2021, view: 934, Q&A: 0

    Over the last decade, lipids have emerged as possessing an ever-increasing number of key functions, especially in membrane trafficking. For instance, phosphatidic acid (PA) has been proposed to play a critical role in different steps along the

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    Multi-color Flow Cytometry for Comprehensive Analysis of the Tumor Immune Infiltrate in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer
    Authors:  Ana S. Almeida, Miriam R. Fein and Mikala Egeblad, date: 06/05/2021, view: 1305, Q&A: 0

    Flow cytometry is a popular laser-based technology that allows the phenotypic and functional characterization of individual cells in a high-throughput manner. Here, we describe a detailed procedure for preparing a single-cell suspension from mammary

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    Parasitemia Evaluation in Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni
    Authors:  Naiara Clemente Tavares and Marina Moraes Mourão, date: 05/20/2021, view: 1944, Q&A: 0

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease. Its treatment relies on the use of a single drug, praziquantel. Due to treatment limitations, an alternative for schistosomiasis chemotherapy is required; thus, a better understanding of parasite

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    In vitro and In vivo CD8+ T Cell Suppression Assays
    Authors:  Lu Xie, Guihuan Liu, Yanjun Liu and Yuming Yu, date: 05/20/2021, view: 2124, Q&A: 0

    CD8+CD28− T suppressor cells (Ts) have been documented to promote immune tolerance by suppressing effector T cell responses to alloantigens following transplantation. The suppressive function of T cells has been defined as the inhibitory

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    Production of the Receptor-binding Domain of the Viral Spike Proteins from 2003 and 2019 SARS CoVs and the Four Common Human Coronaviruses for Serologic Assays and Inhibitor Screening

    The recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein from SARS-CoV-1 and 2 are reliable antigens for detecting viral-specific antibodies in humans. We and others have shown that the levels of RBD-binding antibodies and SARS-CoV-2

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    A Simple and Robust Protocol for in vitro Differentiation of Mouse Non-pathogenic T Helper 17 Cells from CD4+ T Cells
    Authors:  Siwen Kang, Ruohan Wu and Ruoning Wang, date: 05/20/2021, view: 1700, Q&A: 0

    Functional and mechanistic studies of CD4+ T cell lineages rely on robust methods of in vitro T cell polarization. Here, we report an optimized protocol for in vitro differentiation of a mouse non-pathogenic T helper 17 (TH17) cell lineage. Most of

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    In vivo CD40 Silencing by siRNA Infusion in Rodents and Evaluation by Kidney Immunostaining

    The co-stimulatory molecule CD40 and its ligand CD40L play a key role in the regulation of immunological processes and are involved in the pathophysiology of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inhibition of the CD40-CD40L axis is a promising

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    Intact in situ Preparation of Drosophila melanogaster Lymph Gland for Comprehensive Analysis of Larval Hematopoiesis
    Authors:  Diana Rodrigues, K. VijayRaghavan, Lucas Waltzer and Maneesha S. Inamdar, date: 05/20/2021, view: 2405, Q&A: 0

    Blood cells have a limited lifespan and are replenished by a small number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Adult vertebrate hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, liver and spleen making a comprehensive analysis of the entire

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