Protocols in Current Issue
    PEG-mediated, Stable, Nuclear and Chloroplast Transformation of Cyanidioschizon merolae
    Authors:  Maksymilian Zienkiewicz, Tomasz Krupnik, Anna Drożak and Kinga Kania, date: 09/05/2019, view: 154, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The ability to achieve nuclear or chloroplast transformation in plants has been a long standing goal, especially in microalgae research. Over past years there has been only little success, but transient and stable nuclear transformation has been achieved in multiple species. Our newly developed method allows for relatively simple transformation of ...
    Non-invasive Quantification of Cell Wall Porosity by Fluorescence Quenching Microscopy
    Authors:  Xiaohui Liu, Thomas Günther Pomorski and Johannes Liesche, date: 08/20/2019, view: 226, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] All bacteria, fungi and plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall. This complex network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins provides mechanical support, defines cell shape, controls cell growth and influences the exchange of substances between the cell and its surroundings. Despite its name, the cell wall is a flexible, dynamic structure. ...
    Tensile Testing Assay for the Measurement of Tissue Stiffness in Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stem
    Authors:  Kouki Yoshida, Shingo Sakamoto and Nobutaka Mitsuda, date: 08/05/2019, view: 670, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Lignocellulosic biomass is a versatile renewable resource for fuels, buildings, crafts, and biomaterials. Strategies of molecularly designing lignocellulose for industrial application has been developed by the discoveries of novel genes after the screenings of various mutants and transformed lines of Arabidopsis whose cell walls could be ...
    Measuring Protein Half-life in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Authors:  Hongqing Guo and Yanhai Yin, date: 08/05/2019, view: 326, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Post-translational modifications play important roles in controlling protein function and can lead to altered protein stability. Protein stability can be determined after treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor Cycloheximide. Cycloheximide is a translational inhibitor that inhibits protein synthesis via cytoplasmic ribosomes. Here we ...
    Quantification of Blumenol Derivatives as Leaf Biomarkers for Plant-AMF Association
    Authors:  Elisabeth Mindt, Ming Wang, Martin Schäfer, Rayko Halitschke and Ian T. Baldwin, date: 07/20/2019, view: 754, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants are widespread among land plants and can be beneficial for both partners. The plant is provided with mineral nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, whereas it provides carbon resources for the fungus in return. Due to the large economic and environmental impact, ...
    Isolation of Powdery Mildew Haustoria from Infected Barley
    Authors:  Linhan Li, Benjamin Collier and Pietro D. Spanu, date: 07/20/2019, view: 754, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Blumeria graminis is a fungus that causes powdery mildews on grasses, such as barley. Investigations of this pathogen present many challenges due to its obligate biotrophic nature. This means that the fungus can only grow in the presence of a living host plant. B. graminis forms epiphytic mycelia on the plant surface and feeding ...
    Evaluation of Genotoxicity by Micronucleus Assay in vitro and by Allium cepa Test in vivo
    Authors:  Christina N. Banti and Sotiris K. Hadjikakou, date: 07/20/2019, view: 782, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of new metallodrugs either as Small Bioactive Molecules (SBAMs) or Conjugates of Metals with Drugs (CoMeDs) is evaluated by the micronucleus test and the Allium cepa assay, respectively. Fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5), normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) and ...
    Transient Expression Assay in Strawberry Fruits
    Authors:  Mengting Pi, Qi Gao and Chunying Kang, date: 06/05/2019, view: 914, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Strawberry, including the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca (2x) and the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 8x), has emerged as a model system for studying fruit development and ripening. Transient expression provides a quick assay for gene functions or gene interactions. In strawberry, ...
    Simple Method to Determine Protein Redox State in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Authors:  Keisuke Yoshida and Toru Hisabori, date: 06/05/2019, view: 1113, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Thiol-based redox regulation is a posttranslational protein modification that plays a key role in many biological aspects. To understand its regulatory functions, we need a method to directly assess protein redox state in vivo. Here we present a simple procedure to determine protein redox state in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
    An Adjustable Protocol to Analyze Chemical Profiles of Non-sterile Rhizosphere Soil
    Authors:  Alex Williams, Jurriaan Ton and Pierre Pétriacq, date: 05/20/2019, view: 1282, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The analysis of chemical diversity in non-sterile rhizosphere soil has been a pressing methodological challenge for years. Rhizosphere-enriched chemicals (i.e., rhizochemicals) include root exudation chemicals, (microbial) breakdown products thereof, and de novo produced metabolites by rhizosphere-inhabiting microbes, all of ...

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