Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Live-cell Migration Assays to Study Motility of Neural and Glial (Oligodendrocyte) Progenitor Cells
    Authors:  Chu-Yen Chen, Fu-Sheng Chou and Pei-Shan Wang, date: 06/20/2019, view: 312, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cell motility has been extensively studied in in vitro models using fibroblasts and keratocytes, but the cell type-specific mechanisms underlying migration of lineage- or disease-specific cells, such as neural and glial progenitor cells, remain an active field for investigation. The migrating neural and glial progenitor cells contribute ...
    Optical Stimulation and Electrophysiological Analysis of Regenerating Peripheral Axons
    Authors:  Patricia J. Ward and Arthur W. English, date: 06/20/2019, view: 251, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Although axons in the peripheral nervous system can regenerate, functional recovery after nerve injuries is poor. Activity-based therapies, such as exercise and electrical stimulation, enhance the regeneration of cut peripheral axons. Despite their effectiveness, clinical application of these experimental techniques has been limited. At least part ...
    Protocol to Quantitatively Assess the Structural Integrity of Perineuronal Nets ex vivo
    Authors:  Bhanu P. Tewari and Harald Sontheimer, date: 05/20/2019, view: 458, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix assemblies of highly negatively charged proteoglycans that wrap around fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) expressing interneurons in the cerebral cortex. PNNs play important roles in neuronal plasticity and modulate biophysical properties of the enclosed interneurons. Various central nervous system ...
    Isolation of Neural Stem Cells from the Embryonic Mouse Hippocampus for in vitro Growth or Engraftment into a Host Tissue
    Authors:  Oksana Rybachuk, Olga Kopach, Tetyana Pivneva and Vitaliy Kyryk, date: 02/20/2019, view: 978, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] For both stem cell research and treatment of the central nervous system disorders, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) represent an important breakthrough tool. In the expanded stem cell-based therapy use, NSPCs not only provide a powerful cell source for neural cell replacement but a useful model for developmental biology research. Despite ...
    Behavioral Evaluation of Seeking and Preference of Alcohol in Mice Subjected to Stress
    Authors:  Ana Canseco-Alba, Norman Schanz, Hiroki Ishiguro, Qing-Rong Liu and Emmanuel S. Onaivi, date: 10/20/2018, view: 1235, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The alcohol preference model is one of the most widely used animal models relevant to alcoholism. Stressors increase alcohol consumption. Here we present a protocol for a rapid and useful tool to test alcohol preference and stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice. In this model, animals are given two bottles, one with a diluted solution of ...
    Studying the Role of Microglia in Neurodegeneration and Axonal Regeneration in the Murine Visual System
    Authors:  Alexander M Hilla and Dietmar Fischer, date: 08/20/2018, view: 2348, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microglia reside in the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in the maintenance of the physiologic state. They constantly survey their environment for pathologic alterations associated with injury or diseases. For decades, researchers have investigated the role of microglia under different pathologic conditions, using approaches aiming to ...
    Trace Fear Conditioning: Procedure for Assessing Complex Hippocampal Function in Mice
    [Abstract] The trace fear conditioning protocol is designed to measure hippocampal function in mice. The protocol includes a neutral conditioned stimulus (tone) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (shock), separated in time by a trace interval. The trace interval between the tone and the shock critically involves the hippocampus and could be used to ...
    Image-Based Analysis of Mitochondrial Area and Counting from Adult Mouse Dopaminergic Neurites
    Authors:  Nadee Nissanka, Carlos T Moraes and Mlena Pinto, date: 08/20/2018, view: 1700, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mitochondria form dynamic cytoplasmic networks which undergo morphological changes in order to adapt to cellular stresses and signals. These changes can include alterations in size and number within a given cell. Analysis of the whole network can be a useful metric to assess overall mitochondrial health, particularly in neurons, which are highly ...
    Induction of Photothrombotic Stroke in the Sensorimotor Cortex of Rats and Preparation of Tissue for Analysis of Stroke Volume and Topographical Cortical Localization of Ischemic Infarct
    Authors:  Anna M. Wiersma and Ian R. Winship, date: 05/20/2018, view: 3501, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The photothrombotic model of stroke is commonly used in research as it allows the ischemic infarct to be targeted to specific regions of the cortex with high reproducibility and well-defined infarct borders. Unlike other models of stroke, photothrombosis allows the precise size and location of infarct to be tightly controlled with minimal surgical ...
    Sacral Spinal Cord Transection and Isolated Sacral Cord Preparation to Study Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Carmelo Bellardita, Maite Marcantoni, Peter Löw and Ole Kiehn, date: 04/05/2018, view: 2424, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by multiple sensory/motor impairments that arise from different underlying neural mechanisms. Linking specific sensory/motor impairments to neural mechanism is limited by a lack of direct experimental access to these neural circuits. Here, we describe an experimental model which addresses this shortcoming. ...



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