Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Protocol to Quantitatively Assess the Structural Integrity of Perineuronal Nets ex vivo
    Authors:  Bhanu P. Tewari and Harald Sontheimer, date: 05/20/2019, view: 310, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix assemblies of highly negatively charged proteoglycans that wrap around fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) expressing interneurons in the cerebral cortex. PNNs play important roles in neuronal plasticity and modulate biophysical properties of the enclosed interneurons. Various central nervous system ...
    Displaced Object Recognition Memory in Rats
    Authors:  Ali N. Mclagan and Jena B. Hales, date: 04/20/2019, view: 484, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Displaced Object Recognition (DOR) task, sometimes called the Novel Object Location task, assesses spatial recognition memory without navigational demands, explicit instruction, or the need for multiple days of training. This memory task has two phases. First, the subject is familiarized to an open arena with two objects and is allowed to ...
    Time-lapse Whole-field Fluorescence Imaging of Microglia Processes Motility in Acute Mouse Hippocampal Slices and Analysis
    [Abstract] Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In the last year, the improvements in the transgenic mouse technologies and imaging techniques have shed light on microglia functions under physiological conditions. Microglia continuously scan the brain parenchyma with their highly motile processes, maintaining tissue ...
    Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast in Rats
    [Abstract] Using animal models in addiction and pain research is pivotal to unravel new pathways and mechanisms for the treatment of these disorders. Reward devaluation through a consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) task has shown the ability to reduce physical pain sensitivity (hypoalgesia) and increase oral ethanol consumption in rats. The ...
    Social Defeat Stress (SDS) in Mice: Using Swiss Mice as Resident
    Authors:  Marco Oreste F. Pagliusi Jr. and Cesar R. Sartori, date: 03/20/2019, view: 757, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Due to the high prevalence and great economic impact of depression, studies with animal models have been increasingly used to identify neurobiological mechanisms associated with this disorder. However, many animal models use stressful conditions that are not consistent with what we observe in the modern human world. Examples are the chronic ...
    Acute Cerebellar Slice Preparation Using a Tissue Chopper
    Authors:  Yubin Wang and Michel Baudry, date: 03/05/2019, view: 560, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Acute cerebellar slices are widely used among neuroscientists to study the properties of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission as well as intracellular signaling pathways involved in their regulation in cerebellum. The cerebellar cortex presents a well-organized circuitry, and several neuronal pathways can be stimulated and recorded ...
    Isolation of Neural Stem Cells from the Embryonic Mouse Hippocampus for in vitro Growth or Engraftment into a Host Tissue
    Authors:  Oksana Rybachuk, Olga Kopach, Tetyana Pivneva and Vitaliy Kyryk, date: 02/20/2019, view: 815, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] For both stem cell research and treatment of the central nervous system disorders, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) represent an important breakthrough tool. In the expanded stem cell-based therapy use, NSPCs not only provide a powerful cell source for neural cell replacement but a useful model for developmental biology research. Despite ...
    Assessing Spatial Working Memory Using the Spontaneous Alternation Y-maze Test in Aged Male Mice
    Authors:  Emily A.K. Prieur and Nafisa M. Jadavji, date: 02/05/2019, view: 1526, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The global population is aging and the prevalence of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia is increasing. Understanding functional impairments and disease processes is of vital importance in order to develop effective therapeutics. Using the natural exploratory behavior of mice, the spontaneous alternation y-maze ...
    High-resolution Immunoelectron Microscopy Techniques for Revealing Distinct Subcellular Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Domains in Brain
    [Abstract] Activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors by endogenous, exogenous (cannabis derivatives) or synthetic cannabinoids (i.e., CP 55.940, Win-2) has a wide variety of behavioral effects due to the presence of CB1 receptors in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques have been ...
    Three-chamber Social Approach Task with Optogenetic Stimulation (Mice)
    Authors:  Celeste Leung, Jun Chul Kim and Zhengping Jia, date: 12/20/2018, view: 988, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The formation of social relationships via social interactions and memory are essential for one’s physical and mental health. To date, rodent studies have used the three-chamber social approach test to measure social approach, social novelty, and social memory. In recent years, techniques including optogenetics have been developed to acutely ...



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