• Volume 10, 2020
  • Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Current Issue in 2020

Volume: 10, Issue: 6

Biochemistry

In vitro Measurement of CMP-Sialic Acid Transporter Activity in Reconstituted Proteoliposomes Authors:  James Cahill, Shivani Ahuja and Matthew R. Whorton, date: 03/20/2020, view: 213, Q&A: 0
Nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) facilitate eukaryotic cellular glycosylation by transporting nucleotide-sugar conjugates into the Golgi lumen and endoplasmic reticulum for use by glycosyltransferases, while also transferring nucleotide monophosphate byproducts to the cytoplasm. Mutations in this family of proteins can cause a number of ...
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Self-organization Assay for Min Proteins of Escherichia coli in Micro-droplets Covered with Lipids Authors:  Shunshi Kohyama, Kei Fujiwara, Natsuhiko Yoshinaga and Nobuhide Doi, date: 03/20/2020, view: 166, Q&A: 0
The Min system determines the cell division plane of bacteria. As a cue of spatiotemporal regulation, the Min system uses wave propagation of MinD protein (Min wave). Therefore, the reconstitution of the Min wave in cell-sized closed space will lead to the creation of artificial cells capable of cell division. The Min waves emerge via coupling ...
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Cancer Biology

Single-cell qPCR Assay with Massively Parallel Microfluidic System Authors:  Marta Prieto-Vila, Takahiro Ochiya and Yusuke Yamamoto, date: 03/20/2020, view: 182, Q&A: 0
The single-cell transcriptome is the set of messenger RNA molecules expressed in one cell. It is extremely variable and changes according to external, physical and biochemical conditions. Due to sensitivity shortages, most of genetic studies use bulk samples, providing only the average gene expression. Single-cell technologies have provided a ...
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Developmental Biology

Testing Bone Formation Induction by Calvarial Injection Assay in vivo Authors:  Narelle E McGregor, Ingrid J Poulton, Emma C Walker and Natalie A Sims, date: 03/20/2020, view: 258, Q&A: 0
Bone formation occurs during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and during the process of skeletal renewal throughout life. In the process of bone formation, osteoblasts lay down a collagen-containing matrix, termed osteoid, which is gradually hardened by incorporation of mineral crystals. Although osteoblasts can be induced to differentiate and to ...
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Environmental science

Accelerated Snowmelt Protocol to Simulate Climate Change Induced Impacts on Snowpack Dependent Ecosystems Authors:  Laura T. Leonard, Chelsea Wilmer, Heidi Steltzer, Kenneth H. Williams and Jonathan O. Sharp, date: 03/20/2020, view: 293, Q&A: 0
Field studies that simulate the effects of climate change are important for a predictive understanding of ecosystem responses to a changing environment. Among many concerns, regional warming can result in advanced timing of spring snowmelt in snowpack dependent ecosystems, which could lead to longer snow-free periods and drier summer soils. Past ...
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Immunology

Analyzing the Quenchable Iron Pool in Murine Macrophages by Flow Cytometry Authors:  Michael Riedelberger and Karl Kuchler, date: 03/20/2020, view: 128, Q&A: 0
Tissue-resident macrophages are pivotal for a tightly-regulated iron metabolism at a cellular and systemic level, since subtle iron alterations increase the susceptibility for microbial infections or drive multiple diseases. However, research on cellular iron homeostasis in macrophages remains challenging due to the limited amount of available ...
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Method for Measuring Mucociliary Clearance and Cilia-generated Flow in Mice by ex vivo Imaging Authors:  Eric Song and Akiko Iwasaki, date: 03/20/2020, view: 179, Q&A: 0
Ex vivo biophysical measurements provide valuable insights into understanding both physiological and pathogenic processes. One critical physiological mechanism that is regulated by these biophysical properties is cilia-generated flow that mediates mucociliary clearance, which is known to provide protection against foreign particles and ...
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Characterization of Immunological Niches within Peyer’s Patches by ex vivo Photoactivation and Flow Cytometry Analysis Authors:  Adi Biram and Ziv Shulman, date: 03/20/2020, view: 196, Q&A: 0
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells regulate B cell selection for entry into the germinal center (GC) reaction or for differentiation into antibody forming cells. This process takes place at the border between the T and B zones in lymphoid organs and involves physical contacts between T and B cells. During these interactions, T cells endow the B cells ...
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Microbiology

Purification of Rice Stripe Virus Authors:  Gang Lu, Min Yao, Yijun Zhou and Xiaorong Tao, date: 03/20/2020, view: 129, Q&A: 0
Although many spherical and rod-shaped plant virus purification protocols are now available, only a few protocols on filamentous plant virus purification have been published. Here, we report a protocol for large-scale purification of Rice stripe virus (RSV) from RSV-infected rice tissues. RSV virions with high infectivity were first precipitated ...
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Molecular Biology

High-resolution and Deep Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Ancestral States from Large Transcriptomic Data Sets Authors:  Sumanth Kumar Mutte and Dolf Weijers, date: 03/20/2020, view: 252, Q&A: 0
Phylogenetics is an important area of evolutionary biology that helps to understand the origin and divergence of genes, genomes and species. Building meaningful phylogenetic trees is needed for the accurate reconstruction of the past. To achieve a correct phylogenetic understanding of genes or proteins, reliable and robust methods are needed to ...
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Neuroscience

An ex vivo Approach to Assess Mitochondrial ROS by Flow Cytometry in AAV-tagged Astrocytes in Adult Mice Authors:  Carlos Vicente-Gutierrez and Juan P. Bolaños, date: 03/20/2020, view: 390, Q&A: 0
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are naturally produced signalling molecules extremely relevant for understanding both health- and disease-associated biological processes. The study of mROS in the brain is currently underway to decipher their physiopathological roles and contributions in neurological diseases. Recent advances in this ...
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Phototactic T-maze Behavioral Assay for Comparing the Functionality of Color-sensitive Photoreceptor Subtypes in the Drosophila Visual System Authors:  Hunter S. Shaw, Joe Larkin and Yong Rao, date: 03/20/2020, view: 111, Q&A: 0
The Drosophila retina contains light-sensitive photoreceptors (R cells) with distinct spectral sensitivities that allow them to distinguish light by its spectral composition. R7 and R8 photoreceptors are important for color vision, and can be further classified into pale (p) or yellow (y) subtypes depending on the rhodopsin expressed. ...
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Optic Nerve Crush in Mice to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Regeneration Authors:  Evan G. Cameron, Xin Xia, Joana Galvao, Masoumeh Ashouri, Michael S. Kapiloff and Jeffrey L. Goldberg, date: 03/20/2020, view: 173, Q&A: 0
In diseases such as glaucoma, the failure of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons to survive or regenerate their optic nerve axons underlies partial and, in some cases, complete vision loss. Optic nerve crush (ONC) serves as a useful model not only of traumatic optic neuropathy but also of glaucomatous injury, as it similarly induces RGC cell death ...
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Shared Pheromonal Communication of Specific Fear Between Adult Sprague Dawley Rats Authors:  Samantha J. Carew and Abhinaba Ghosh, date: 03/20/2020, view: 148, Q&A: 0
Rats are highly social animals, and mainly communicate with one another in two ways: through ultrasonic vocalizations and pheromones. Most research on pheromones has been dedicated those regarding sexual behavior, but more recently pheromones which signal danger to conspecifics have been identified in rodents. In fact, rats are capable of ...
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Plant Science

Experiments for in silico evaluation of Optimality of Photosynthetic Nitrogen Distribution and Partitioning in the Canopy: an Example Using Greenhouse Cucumber Plants Authors:  Yi-Chen Pao, Tsu-Wei Chen, Dany Pascal Moualeu-Ngangue and Hartmut Stützel, date: 03/20/2020, view: 240, Q&A: 0
Acclimation of leaf traits to fluctuating environments is a key mechanism to maximize fitness. One of the most important strategies in acclimation to changing light is to maintain efficient utilization of nitrogen in the photosynthetic apparatus by continuous modifications of between-leaf distribution along the canopy depth and within-leaf ...
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